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Prelim Bits 16-08-2023 | UPSC Daily Current Affairs

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August 16, 2023

Matangini Hazra & Kanaklata Barua

On the eve of 77th Independence Day, President Murmu pays tribute to freedom fighters Matangini Hazra, Kanaklata Barua.

Matangini Hazra

  • About – She was a revolutionary leader who played a significant role in India's struggle for independence.
  • She was born in Hogla, West Bengal in 1869.
  • Following her husband’s death, she began devoting herself to social causes.
  • Role in freedom struggle - She was influenced by Gandhiji’s beliefs, that she earned the name “Gandhi Buri” (the old Gandhian woman).
  • In 1905, she became actively involved in the Indian independence struggle and was arrested for taking part in the Civil Disobedience Movement in 1930.
  • She participated in the Non-Cooperation movement in 1932 and was arrested for her role in the Salt Satyagraha movement.
  • She was arrested again and imprisoned in Baharampur for six months for his persistence with the demand of Salt Tax be repealed.
  • In 1933, she was hurt in a police baton charge after attending a subdivisional Congress convention in Serampore.
  • Matangini Hazra led a march during the Quit India movement of 1942, to take over the Tamluk police station from British authorities and fell to the british bullets at the age of 73.
  • She was the first woman revolutionary to have her statue erected in the Kolkata Maidan in 1977.

Kanaklata Barua

  • She was one of the youngest martyrs of the Quit India Movement and has an iconic status in Assam.
  • About - Kanaklata Barua was an eminent freedom fighter in Assam.
  • She was born on December 22, 1924, at Barangabari of Sonitpur district of Assam.
  • She was born to Krishna Kanta Baruah and Korneswari Baruah.
  • At the age of 17 she was motivated to join the freedom struggle of the country and tried to join the Azad Hind Fauz.
  • But because of her being minor she could not succeed.
  • She joined the Mrityu Bahini and was made the leader of the women cadres of the Bahini.
  • Role in freedom struggle - Barua led the Mrityu Bahini, a procession of freedom fighters, to unfurl the Tricolour at Gohpur police station on September 20, 1942.
  • When police did not let them move forward, an altercation led to firing, killing Barua at the head of the procession.

Mrityu Bahini was a death/suicide squad prepared to sacrifice their lives while attempting to hoist the national flag atop police stations.

  • She was one of the youngest martyrs of the Quit India Movement, she died at the age of 17 devoted for the independence of the country.
  • In 2020, the Coast Guard named a Fast Patrol Vessel (FPV) after her, the ICGS Kanaklata Barua.

References

1. The Indian Express | President Murmu pays tribute to freedom fighters

2. Indian Culture | MATANGINI HAZRA

3. Assam Info | Kanaklata Barua

19th India-China Corps Meeting

The 19th round of India-China Corps Commander-level meeting was held at Chushul-Moldo border meeting point on the Indian side recently.

  • Issues with LoAC - The eastern Ladakh border standoff erupted on May 5, 2020, following a violent clash in the Pangong lake area between India and China.

LoAC India - China

  • The ties between the two countries dropped significantly following the fierce clash in the Galwan Valley in June 2020 that marked the most serious military conflict between the two sides in decades.
  • As a result of a series of military and diplomatic talks, the two sides completed the disengagement process in 2021.
  • Recent meeting - It was for the first time that the high-level military talks on the lingering border row spanned two days.
  • India and China agreed to resolve the remaining issues along the Line of Actual Control (LAC) in eastern Ladakh in an expeditious manner.
  • They agreed to maintain the momentum of dialogue and negotiations through military and diplomatic channels.
  • It did not indicate any immediate breakthrough in disengagement of troops in remaining friction points in eastern Ladakh.
  • They also agreed to maintain the peace and tranquility on the ground in the border areas.

References

1. The Hindu | India and China agree to resolve remaining issues

2. MEA | Joint Press Release of the 19th Round of India-China meeting

3. Business Standard | Meet at Chushul-Moldo

Graphene-Aurora Program

Ministry of Electronics & Information Technology (MeitY) has launched the ‘Graphene-Aurora program’ at Kerala recently.

  • Aim - It aims to fill the gap between R&D and commercialization by providing a complete facility to startup and industry.
  • Ministry - Ministry of Electronics & IT.
  • Implemented by - Digital University Kerala with joint funding from Ministry of Electronics & Information Technology (MeitY) and Government of Kerala and Industry partners.
  • Under this programme, Section 8 Company (not for profit) called India Graphene Engineering and Innovation Center (I-GEIC) shall be set up in Trivandrum, Kerala.

Graphene

  • It is often referred to as a wonder material for its extraordinary electrical and electronic properties.
  • Discovered by - Andre Geim and Konstantin Novoselov, discovered in 2004.
  • It is stronger than steel, very stretchable and can be used as a flexible conductor.
  • Its thermal conductivity is much higher than that of silver.
  • It is an ultimately thin, mechanically very strong, transparent and flexible conductor.
  • Applications - Touch screens, light panels and solar cells.

References

1. PIB | Graphene-Aurora Program

2. DD News | Graphene-Aurora program

Karnail Singh Isru

On India’s Independence Day this year, Punjab Chief Minister Bhagwant Mann paid his tributes to the late activist Karnail Singh Isru.

  • About - Isru was born on September 9, 1930, in the Chak 30 village, Punjab that is now in Pakistan.
  • Inspired by - Bhagat Singh, Chandra Shekhar Azad, Udham Singh and others.
  • Isru started teaching at a government school in a Ludhiana village.
  • Role in freedom struggle – He raised the issue of fee hikes in his school in Khanna, Isru became the student union’s president.
  • In the early 1950s, he joined the local unit of the Communist Party of India (CPI).
  • Though the country had achieved independence by then, the territories of Goa, Daman and Diu, and Dadra and Nagar Haveli were still under Portuguese rule.
  • In mid-1955, CPI decided to send Satyagarhis to Goa for continuing the fight against colonial rule with an aim to hoist the Indian tricolour in Goa on Independence Day.
  • Isru reached Pune on August 14, 1955, and a batch of Satyagarhis began their march towards Goa.
  • They were led by a young widow named Sahodrabai Rai, who hailed from the Bundelkhand region.
  • Isru was hit by a bullet in his chest, resulting in his death at the age of 25 during this march.
  • After that Operation Vijay was carried out and an instrument of surrender was signed, leading to Goa’s annexation by India.
  • Goa liberated on December 19, 1961.
  • Memorials - In 2015, a bronze bust of Issru was installed in the primary school of Patradevi village in Goa.
  • Every year, the Punjab government organises a function in memory of Isru that sees participation from the CM.

Reference

The Indian Express | Karnail Singh Isru

Hughes JUPITER 3 Mission

Recently, SpaceX successfully launched the Hughes' Jupiter 3, which could be the largest private communications satellite ever.

JUPITER 3

  • Spectrum - Ka-band, plus Q- and V-band for gateways
  • Coverage - North & South America
  • Speed - Up to 100 Mbps
  • Capacity - More than 500 Gbps
  • Jupiter 3 (Also known as EchoStar XXIV) is the highly anticipated, next generation Ultra High Density Satellite (UHDS) that will double the capacity of the Hughes JUPITER satellite fleet.
  • Built by - Maxar Technologies in Palo Alto, California.
  • Agency SpaceX, an American spacecraft manufacturer, launch service provider and satellite communications company.
  • Launch vehicle - Falcon Heavy launch vehicle from Launch Complex-39A at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida.
  • JUPITER 3 will travel into a geosynchronous orbit above the Earth to its destination at the 95 degrees west orbital slot.
  • Application - It will support in-flight Wi-Fi, maritime connections, enterprise networks, backhaul for Mobile Network Operators (MNOs), and Community Wi-Fi solutions, in addition to satellite internet connectivity across North and South America.

References

1. The Indian Express | SpaceX is set to launch Hughes' Jupiter 3

2. PRNewswire | Hughes JUPITER 3 Satellite

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