Year End Review | Ministry of Culture

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December 29, 2023


  • A separate ministry for culture was established in 2006.
  • Primary mandate- Preservation and conservation of ancient cultural heritage and promotion of tangible and intangible art and culture.
  • Union Minister- Shri G. Kishan Reddy



  • New Inclusion- Santiniketan and Hoysala temples (Sacred Ensembles of Hoysalas) from India were inscribed on the UNESCO World Heritage List.
  • Santiniketan- It is a university in West Bengal set up by the Nobel Laureate, Rabindranath Tagore.
  • It is based on ancient Indian traditions, reflecting his vision and philosophy of recognizing unity of humanity or ‘Visva Bharati’.
  • It is the first tangible cultural heritage site from West Bengal.
  • Sacred Ensembles of Hoysalas- It comprise 3 magnificent 13th century temples of the Hoysala Dynasty in Karnataka, namely
    • Hoysalesvara Temple Helebidu,
    • Channakeshava Temple Belur,
    • Keshava Temple Somnathapur.

India is in the 6th position for maximum number of sites on the World Heritage List of UNESCO



Man Made

  1. Agra Fort (1983)
  2. Ajanta Caves (1983)
  3. Buddhist Monuments at Sanchi (1989)
  4. Champaner-Pavagadh Archaeological Park (2004)
  5. Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus (formerly Victoria Terminus) (2004)
  6. Churches and Convents of Goa (1986)
  7. Elephanta Caves (1987)
  8. Ellora Caves (1983)
  9. Fatehpur Sikri (1986)
  10. Great Living Chola Temples (1987)
  11. Group of Monuments at Hampi (1986)
  12. Group of Monuments at Mahabalipuram (1984)
  13. Group of Monuments at Pattadakal (1987)
  14. Hill Forts of Rajasthan (2013)
  15. Humayun's Tomb, Delhi (1993)
  16. Khajuraho Group of Monuments (1986)
  17. Mahabodhi Temple Complex at Bodh Gaya (2002)
  18. Mountain Railways of India (1999)
  19. Qutb Minar and its Monuments, Delhi (1993)
  20. Rani-ki-Vav (the Queen’s Stepwell) at Patan, Gujarat (2014)
  21. Red Fort Complex (2007)
  22. Rock Shelters of Bhimbetka (2003)
  23. Sun Temple, Konârak (1984)
  24. Taj Mahal (1983)
  25. The Jantar Mantar, Jaipur (2010)
  26. Archaeological Site of Nalanda Mahavihara(Nalanda University) at Nalanda, Bihar(2016)
  27. The Architectural Work of Le Corbusier, an Outstanding Contribution to the Modern Movement(2016)
  28. Historic City of Ahmadabad(2017)
  29. Victorian Gothic and Art Deco Ensembles of Mumbai (2018)
  30. Jaipur city, Rajasthan (2019)
  31. Kakatiya Rudreshwara (Ramappa) Temple, Telangana
  32. Dholavira: a Harappan City (2021)
  33. Santiniketan (2023)
  34. Sacred Ensembles of Hoysalas (2023)



  1. Great Himalayan National Park (2014)
  2. Kaziranga National Park (1985)
  3. Keoladeo National Park (1985)
  4. Manas Wildlife Sanctuary (1985)
  5. Nanda Devi & Valley of Flowers National Parks (1988)
  6. Sundarbans National Park (1987)
  7. Western Ghats (2012)
  1. Khangchendzonga National Park (2016)



1. Kutiyattam, Sanskrit theatre (2008)

2. Ramlila, the traditional performance of the Ramayana (2008)

3. Tradition of Vedic chanting (2008)

4. Ramman, religious festival and ritual theatre of the Garhwal Himalayas (2009)

5. Novruz, Nowrouz, Nooruz, Navruz, Nauroz, Nevru (2009)

6. Chhau dance (2010)

7. Kalbelia folk songs and dances of Rajasthan (2010)

8. Mudiyettu, ritual theatre and dance drama of Kerala (2010)

9. Buddhist chanting of Ladakh: recitation of sacred Buddhist texts in the trans-Himalayan Ladakh region, Jammu and Kashmir, (2012)

10. Sankirtana, ritual singing, drumming and dancing of Manipur (2013)

11. Thatheras of Jandiala Guru, Punjab (2014)

12. Yoga (2017)

13. Kumbh Mela (2017)

14. Durga Puja in Kolkata (2021)

15. Garba of Gujarat (2023)



amrit mahotsav

  • Launch year- 2021
  • Theme- Nation first, always first
  • Meaning- Great Celebration for the Amirtham (nectar) of Independence.
  • It is an embodiment of all that is progressive about India’s socio-cultural, political and economic identity.

amrit mahotsav

Important events

  • Meri Maati Mera Desh- Maati Ko Naman Veeron ka Vandan- Unified celebration to pay tribute to the ‘Veers’ who laid down their lives for the country.
    • Amrit Kalash Yatra- Carrying soil from all corners of the country in 7500 kalash to create an 'Amrit Vatika' in Delhi.
    • Amrit Mahotsav Memorial- At the memorial site, people will take a solemn pledge covering Panch Pran, affirming their commitment to the country.
    • Rastragaan- Hoisting of flags and singing of National Anthem at sites.
    • Vasudheva vandhan- Panchayats, villages and urban local bodies will replenish Mother Earth by planting 75 saplings of indigenous species and develop the ‘Amrit Vatika’
  • Mera Gaon Meri Dharohar- Culturally map India's 6.5 lakh villages, spanning 29 States and 7 Union Territories, on a comprehensive virtual platform under National Mission on Cultural Mapping.
  • Har Ghar Tiranga- Encourages people to bring the tricolour flag home and to hoist it to mark the 75th year of India’s independence.
  • Kashi Tamil Sangamam 2.0 -To revive the bonds between Varanasi and Tamil Nadu through cultural exchange and knowledge sharing
  • Swantatra Swar- Revolutionary poetry banned during British Raj is published.
  • Vande Bharatam programme- An initiative as part of Republic Day Celebrations 2023 along with Ministry of Defence, to promote the spirit of 'Jan Bhagidari', while showcasing India's vibrancy thorough its dance.
    • Shakti Rupen Sansthita- It was the title of the tableau of the Ministry of Culture that was showcased at the Republic Day celebrations at Kartavya Path.


  • Theme- Vasudheiva Kudumbakam (One Earth One Family One Future)
  • Events held
    • G-20 March for World Peace
    • G-20 Run for Women Power
    • Culture All Unites, the largest display of Lambani embroidery patches was organised at Hampi, Karnataka
  • Kashi Culture Pathway- It reflects the consensus and commitment of the G20 member based on 4 thematic priorities.
  • Protection and Restitution of Cultural Property
  • Harnessing Living Heritage for a Sustainable Future
  • Promotion of Cultural and Creative Industries, and Creative Economy
  • Leveraging Digital Technologies for the Promotion and Protection of Culture

To know more about G20 Summit click here


  • Global engagement schemes
    • Festivals of India Abroad- Tools of cultural diplomacy that project India’s rich cultural heritage and its soft power
    • Grant-in aid to Indo-Foreign Friendship Cultural Societies- To promote Indian culture abroad, fostering closer friendship and cultural contacts
  • Cultural Exchange Programme- It has been signed with Egypt, Colombia, Italy, Mauritius, Slovakia and Belarus to foster bilateral cooperation.
  • Shared Buddhist Heritage- Organized in association with Ministry of External Affairs, it is an international conference with Shanghai Cooperation Organization Nations at New Delhi with focus on India’s civilization connect.
  • Global Buddhist Summit- It is hosted in collaboration with International Buddhist Confederation with the theme “Responses to Contemporary Challenges: Philosophy to Praxis”.
  • India Art, Architecture and Design Biennale, 2023- To invigorate the cultural space and creative industries and leverage the Arts for Global Cultural Diplomacy and Connect.


  • Atmanirbhar Bharat Centre for Design- Launched at Delhi to pave the way for a sustainable cultural economy derived from the indigenous crafts of India by empowering the artisan communities with new designs and innovations.
  • Rashtriya Sanskriti Mahotsav- Organised in Mumbai to promote National Unity and integrity through cultural exchange.
  • Kala Samantar- An art gala uniting visual and performing arts in a beautiful symphony organised by National Gallery of Modern Art, New Delhi.
  • Barisu Kannada Dim Dimava- Festival on Karnataka’s culture, traditions and history.
  • Vitasta- Festival to celebrate the vibrant cultural traditions of Jammu and Kashmir.
  • Utkarsh- India’s largest folk and tribal cultural event organised in Madhya Pradesh.
  • Samskrita Samunmesha- National Sanskrit Convention to carry Sanskrit to the grassroot level.
  • Festival of libraries- To promote development and digitization of libraries and cultivate the culture of reading.
  • International Museum Expo 2023- To celebrate the International Museum Day and to institutionalize this in its annual calendar.


200th Birth Anniversary of Maharishi Dayanand Saraswati

  • Dayanand Saraswati was one of the most influential figures of 19th-century India.
  •  A believer in the supreme authority of the Vedas, he established the Arya Samaj in 1875, leading a reform movement within orthodox Hinduism.
  • Arya Samaj means “Make this world noble”. He gave the clarion call “Go back to Vedas”.
  • Shuddhi Movement- It was introduced by him to bring back the individuals to Hinduism who were either voluntarily or involuntarily converted to other religions like Islam or Christianity.
  • Publications- Satyarth Prakash, Sanskarvidhi and Yajurved Bhashyam.
  • Sarvapalli Radhakrishnan called Dayanand Saraswati as “a maker of modern India”.

125th Birth Anniversary of Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose

  • Subhash Chandra Bose is an Indian revolutionary prominent in the independence movement against British rule of India.
  • He was a close associate of Mahatma Gandhi and Jawaharlal Nehru, but later broke away from them due to ideological differences.
  • In 1939, he formed the Forward Bloc, an organization aimed at unifying all anti-British forces in India.
  • He also led an Indian National Force from abroad against the Western powers during World War II.
  • He was a charismatic influencer of the youth and earned the epithet ‘Netaji’ by establishing and leading the Indian National Army (INA) during India’s struggle for independence.

150th Birth Anniversary of Sri Aurobindo Ghosh

  • He is an Indian nationalist, poet, philosopher, and yogi.
  • He played an active role in the Indian Freedom Movement till 1910, after which he became a spiritual reformer.
  • Tagore painted him as the Messiah of Indian Culture and Civilization and C R Das hailed him as the ‘poet of patriotism, the prophet of nationalism and the lover of humanity.’
  • He associated himself with journals and periodicals namely Jugantar, Bande Mataram and the Karmayogi, through which he criticised British imperialism and preached revolutionary concept of nationalism.
  • In 1908, he was arrested on the charge of the Alipore Bomb Conspiracy Case and was acquitted in 1909 after a long trial.
  • Important writings- The Life Divine, Savitri, Essay on the Gita, Defense of Indian Culture, etc.,

250th Birth Anniversary of Raja Ram Mohan Roy

  • Raja Ram Mohan Roy is considered as the father of modern Indian Renaissance for his remarkable reforms such as abolition of Sati.
  • In 1828, Ram Mohan Roy formed the Brahmo Samaj, which had no faith in idol-worship and were against the caste restrictions.
  • The title 'Raja' was bestowed upon him by the Mughal emperor Akbar II, in 1831.
  • He brought out a newspaper in Persian called 'Miratul- Akhbar' (the Mirror of News) and a Bengali weekly called 'Sambad Kaumudi' (the Moon of Intelligence).

400th Birth Anniversary of Shri Guru Tegh Bahadur

  • Guru Tegh Bahadur Jayanti is celebrated to mark the auspicious occasion of the birth of the 9th Guru of Sikhism, Guru Tegh Bahadur.
  • He is often called as the “Protector of Humanity” by Sikhs.
  • He founded the town of Chak-Nanki in Punjab, which later became a part of Punjab’s Anandpur Sahib.
  • His writings are housed in the sacred text, ‘Guru Granth Sahib,’ in the form of 116 poetic hymns
  • He opposed the forced conversion of the Hindu Kashmiri Pandits by Mughal ruler Aurangazeb and was persecuted.

150th birth anniversary of Jainacharya Shree Vijay Vallabh Sureshwar

  • Vallabhsuri, also known as Punjab Kesari led an austere life as a Jain Saint to spread the message of Lord Mahavira.
  • He placed emphasis on education and inspired Jains to build more educational institutions.
  • He also participated in the Swadeshi movement led by Mahatma Gandhi for independence of India.
  • Statute of Peace is dedicated to him in Rajasthan by Government of India in 2021.

125th Birth Anniversary of Sri Alluri Sitarama Raju

  • Alluri is also referred to as Manyam Veerudu (Jungle Warrior).
  • Initially, Sitarama Raju, under the influence of Gandhiji’s Non-cooperation movement, inspired the tribals to seek justice in the local panchayat courts and boycott the colonial courts.
  • The Madras Forest Act, 1882 restricted the free movement of the tribal communities and prohibiting them from engaging in their traditional Podu agricultural system.
  • This oppressive order was the beginning of the tribal revolt, also known as the Manyam Rebellion or Rampa Rebellion.

525th Birth Anniversary of Saint Meera Bai

  • Mirabai, a 16th century Indian royal, was a great Bhakti saint, Hindu mystic poet and a devotee of the Lord Krishna.
  • Bhaktmal, a poetry collection that describes the biography of Meera Bai, is written by Guru Nabha Dass ji in 1585 CE in Braja language.
  • She became a follower of Ravidas, a saint who was said to be untouchable.

500th birth centenary celebrations of Rani Durgavati

  • Rani Durgavati is said to have been born in 1524, in Mahoba’s Chandela dynasty (Uttar Pradesh).
  • She was married to Dalpat Shah, son of King Sangram Shah of Gondwana.
  • After her husband’s death, Rani Durgavati ascended the throne of Gondwana.
  • She fought the Mughal emperor Akbar and his commander Asaf Khan and gave the ultimate sacrifice.
  • The day of her martyrdom is commemorated as Balidan Diwas’.



  1. PIB- Year End Review Ministry of Culture
  2. Ministry of Culture- Annual report of the Ministry  
  3. PIB- Meri Maati Mera Desh Campaign
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