UNFCCC COP-28 (Part-1)

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December 29, 2023

Why in news?

The Conference of Parties (COP-28) has been recently concluded in Dubai, United Arab Emirates (UAE) with the adoption of UAE Consensus.

Status of Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions

  • G20 countries represent around 75% of global GHG emissions.
  • The US, the UK and the EU are considered to be responsible for 50% of all emissions.
  • India is responsible for only 4% of historical emissions.
  • China, the world’s biggest emitter in the last 15 years, is responsible for 30% of global emissions every year.

What is COP all about?

  • The COP is the main decision-making body of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC).
  • It brings together the 198 Parties (including the European Union) to negotiate and agree on how to tackle climate change, reduce emissions and limit global warming.
  • The inaugural gathering took place in Berlin, Germany, in 1995.
  • The COP secretariat is headquartered in Bonn.
  • The COP Presidency rotates among the 5 recognized UN regions - Africa, Asia, Latin America and the Caribbean, Central and Eastern Europe and Western Europe and others.
  • COPs (28) are organized into 2 distinctive areas.
    • The Blue Zone - A UNFCCC-managed site that is only open to UN-accredited participants.
    • The Green Zone - Managed and delivered by the COP28 UAE Presidency, and is open to everyone.
  • To know more about COP-27, click here: Part -I & Part - II

climate-change-conferenceWhat about COP28?

  • Host of COP28 - Dubai, The UAE


  • The UNFCCC was formed in 1994 to stabilize GHG emissions and to protect the earth from the threat of climate change.
  • The participants at COPs are signatories to UNFCCC and have been meeting every year since 1995.
  • At present, the UNFCCC has 198 members.
  • It is one of the 3 Rio Conventions which includes Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD).
  • It appointed the chief executive of the state-owned oil company, Sultan al-Jaber, as COP28 president.
  • The UAE is one of the world's top 10 oil-producing nations.
  • US President Joe Biden and China's Xi Jinping did not attend the event, but both countries were represented.
  • 4 themes - The 4 crosscutting themes are technology & innovation, inclusion, frontline communities and finance.
  • It also focuses on the progress towards the existing Paris goal of limiting the global average temperature rise to well below 2°C above pre-industrial levels, and pursue efforts to limit it to 1.5°C.

Paris Agreement is a legally binding international treaty on climate change that was launched in 2015 and was adopted by 196 countries.


Meetings at 2023 UN Climate Change Conference, Dubai – It includes

  • 28th session of the Conference of the Parties (COP 28)
  • 5th session of the decision-making body of the Paris Agreement (CMA 5)
  • 18th session of the decision-making body of the Kyoto Protocol (CMP 18)
  • The World Climate Action Summit (WCAS) - It was held during the COP 28 where world leaders presented their progress and ambitions, providing guidance for the remainder of the COP.



India’s Updated Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC)

  • This update translates the ‘Panchamrit’ announced at COP 26 into enhanced climate targets.
  • Emissions intensity – It is the total amount of emissions emitted for every unit of GDP.
    • The goal to reduce emissions intensity and improve energy efficiency was not sector specific.
    • Reducing emission intensity of GDP by 45% below 2005 levels by 2030.
  • Status -India had already achieved 21% of its emissions intensity as a proportion of its GDP in line with its commitment.
  • Non fossil fuel-based energy – To meet 50% of cumulative electric power installed capacity from non-fossil fuel-based energy resources by 2030.
  • Power - 500 GW of non-fossil fuel installed power generation capacity by 2030.
  • Absolute Emission - Cutting absolute emissions by one billion tonnes, presumably from projected business-as-usual (BAU) 2030 levels.
  • Net-zero emissions – To be achieved by 2070.



To know about UNFCCC COP-28 Part 2, click here

To download full pdf, click here

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