Prelim Bits 28-04-2023 | UPSC Daily Current Affairs

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April 28, 2023

Exercise of Veto in United Nations Security Council

India has emphasised that the exercise of veto in the UN Security Council is driven by political considerations and not by moral obligations.

Veto initiative

  • UN General Assembly had adopted by consensus, without a vote, the resolution ‘Standing mandate for a General Assembly debate when a veto is cast in the Security Council'.
  • This is also known as the 'Veto Initiative’.
  • Following the resolution, the use of the veto in the Council by a permanent member now triggers a General Assembly meeting, where all UN members can scrutinise and comment on the veto.
  • In the 15-nation Security Council, only the five permanent members, China, France, Russia, the U.K. and the U.S., have veto powers.
  • The remaining 10 members are elected as non-permanent members for two-year terms and do not have veto powers.

India’s stand

  • India had voiced regret over the lack of inclusivity in tabling the resolution and had said it has serious concerns about such take it or leave it initiatives
  • The veto as a matter of principle should be abolished.
  • However, as a matter of common justice, it should be extended to new permanent members so long as it continues to exist.
  • either all nations are treated equally in the context of voting rights or else the new permanent members must also be given the veto.
  • India underlined the need to address all five aspects of UNSC reform, including the question of veto, in a comprehensive manner.


  1. The Hindu │ Exercise of veto in UNSC

Nano DAP fertilizer

After the Nano Urea, the Government of India has now approved the Nano Di Ammonium Phosphate as well.


  • Nano Fertilizers hold great promise for application in plant nourishment because of the size-dependent qualities, high surface-volume ratio and unique optical properties.
  • Nano fertilizer releases plant nutrients in a controlled manner contributing to higher nutrient use efficiency.
  • It saves the soil and also increases the production and hence is the best for the farmers.
  • The first mass manufacturing plant of nano DAP will be set up in Kalol of Gujarat.


  • The use of nano urea and nano DAP will lead to a reduction in imports as well as the government’s fertiliser subsidy bill.
  • DAP is the second most consumed fertiliser in the country after urea.
  • By using liquid DAP and liquid urea, the farmers can increase the number of earthworms in their land.
  • This helps them to move towards natural farming without reducing production and income.
  • This will also help in conserving the land.


  1. PIB │ Nano DAP fertilizer

Manamadurai Pottery

The Manamadurai pottery recently earned a Geographical Indication (GI) tag.


  • The Vaigai river enriches the clay used for the Manamadurai pottery.
  • The circumference of the pot and the neck should be proportionate so that the pot sits flat on the ground.
  • The right proportion of mud, clay and heating makes this product very strong. The main raw materials for making these pots are soil and water.
  • The sand, collected from different places of the district, is used for making pottery and dried for two days. The particles of the mud get separated by sieving.

Uniqueness of the pottery

  • A unique type of clay is sourced from water bodies like Nedunkulam, Nathapurakki, Sundaranadappu, Seikalathur to make these pots.
  • While making these pots, the five elements of nature namely earth, water, fire, sun and air are used.
  • The basic material for pottery is mud, which represents the earth. Mud is mixed with water, another element of nature.
  • This is followed by baking in fire, adding the third element. The air percolates through the pores in the clay, marking the fourth element.
  • And finally, the cavity enclosed by the pot or any related article represents space.


  1. The Hindu │ Manamadurai Pottery

Command Cyber Operations and Support Wings

Army Commanders Conference (ACC) had decided to operationalise Command Cyber Operations and Support Wings (CCOSWs) in the immediate future with current focus on net-centric operations.

Need for CCOSWs

  • Rapid migration towards net centricity, which entails an increased reliance on modern communication systems.
  • In order to augment the capabilities of the forces by absorption of niche technologies and equipment.
  • To nominate lead directorates and ‘test bed’ formations to evolve optimal employment philosophies and scaling to facilitate better exploitation.
  • Need to review tech human resource capabilities to maintain an effective and lethal fighting force.
  • To achieve that the Army wants to amend the Technical Entry Scheme (TES) available for B.Tech graduates to become officers.
  • The expansion of cyber warfare capabilities by our adversaries has made the cyber domain more competitive and contested than ever before.


  1. Business Line │ Command Cyber Operations and Support Wings

Preparedness and Resilience for Emerging Threats (PRET)

The World Health Organization (WHO) has launched a new initiative to be better prepared for future outbreaks of a similar scale and devastation as the COVID-19 pandemic.


  • PRET Initiative is aimed at providing guidance on integrated planning for responding to any respiratory pathogen such as influenza or coronaviruses.
  • The initiative was announced at the Global Meeting for Future Respiratory Pathogen Pandemics held in Geneva, Switzerland.
  • The three-pronged approach includes updating preparedness plans that affirm priority actions, increase connectivity among stakeholders in pandemic preparedness planning, financing and monitoring of pandemic preparedness.
  • The initiative can also serve to operationalize the objectives and provisions of the Pandemic Accord.


  1. Down to Earth |  PRET
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