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Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojana

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June 13, 2024

Why in news?

Recently, the Union cabinet approved for constructing 3 crore more rural and urban houses under the Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojana with higher assistance per beneficiary.

What is Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojana? 

  • In pursuance to the goal of Housing for all, PM awas Yojana was launched.
  • Types – There are two types of schemes covering both urban and rural areas.
    • PMAY-G – Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojana Gramin
    • PMAY-U – Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojana Urban
  • Mission – To achieve the objective of providing “Housing to All” by the year 2024.
  • To construct a house for poor people who don’t have their own house which is beneficial for both urban and rural areas.
  • Mode - It is a centrally sponsored scheme, by which the Centre and states share expenses in
    • 60:40 ratio – In plain areas
    • 90:10 ratio – In northeastern states, two Himalayan states and the UT of Jammu and Kashmir.
    • 100% by Centre – In case of other Union Territories, including the UT of Ladakh.
  • Eligibility – The applicant should also be an Indian citizen who should not own any pucca house before applying.
  • No member of the family should have a government job as well. 
  • Targeted beneficiaries – A total of 4.21 crore houses have been built for eligible poor families in the last 10 years.
  • Empowers women – It provides the ownership of houses in name of female member or in joint name.
  • Empowers marginalized groups – Preference is also given to differently abled persons, senior citizens, SCs, STs, OBCs, Minority, single women, transgender and other weaker & vulnerable sections of the society.
  • New initiatives in 2024 – Among sanctioned three crore houses, two crore will be constructed under PMAY-Gramin, while 1 crore under PMAY-Urban.
  • The government have decided to increase the cost of construction of the PMAY-G house from existing Rs 1.2 lakh to Rs 1.8 lakh in the plains and Rs 1.3 lakh to Rs 2 lakh in the hilly areas.

What is PMAY-Urban?

  • Launched in2015
  • Nodal ministryMinistry of Housing and Urban Affairs (MoHUA).
  • Coverage – Over the entire urban area including Statutory Towns and Notified Planning Areas.

                PMAY-U

  • Approach – It adopts a cafeteria approach to suit the needs of individuals based on the geographical conditions, topography, economic conditions, availability of land, infrastructure etc.
  • Basic amenities – Facilities like toilet, water supply, electricity and kitchen are covered.

                                                  FeaturesofPMAY-U

  • Major initiativesRobust MIS System to help all stakeholders to seamlessly manage information pertaining to physical and financial progress.
  • The transfer of the assistance beneficiaries is being done through Direct Benefit Transfer (DBT). 
  • A web based monitoring system, CLSS Awas Portal (CLAP) integrates all stakeholders in real time environment.
  • ANGIKAAR (A campaign for change management) focuses on adopting best practices.
  • Global Housing Technology Challenge aims to identify and mainstream a basket of innovative construction technologies.
    • Light House projects under this ushered a paradigm shift in the construction technology.

What is PMAY-Grameen?

  • Launched in – 2016, it was previously known as the Indira Awas Yojana.
  • Nodal Ministry – Ministry of Rural Development
  • Coverage – It covers rural regions of India (excluding Chandigarh and Delhi).
  • Beneficiaries – They are selected on the basis of housing deprivation parameters in the Socio-Economic Caste Census 9SECC) 2011 data and the list of beneficiaries is validated by the Gram Sabha.
  • Assistance – It gives financial assistance to the people who have land and want to build houses.
  • The banks also provide home loans at low interest rates under this scheme while the government provides subsidies on home loans.
  • Along with financial assistance, the beneficiary is also offered 90 days of employment under the Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA) to construct toilets.
  • Targets – Of the sanctioned 2.95 crore houses, 2.61 crore have been built till date.

What are the challenges associated with PMAY?

  • Scarcity of land – There is little to no space for further development in urban areas.
  • Land acquisition – The tedious acquisition process makes it difficult to initiate affordable housing projects.
  • Delayed project approvals – Lengthy and cloudy approval process has often a barrier towards curbing the cost of realty projects.
  • Higher cost – There is issue of rising cost of raw materials and labour.
  • Age-old technologies – It leads to have an extended gestation period and extend the construction cycle up to 2-3 years.
  • Lack of skilled workforce – It affects not only the quality but also delays the completion of the projects.

What lies ahead?

  • Moving to the peripheral areas where land is available in plenty and at competitive prices.
  • Easing land acquisition process or government acquiring land and handing over the same to developers at a higher subsidy/incentive.
  • An efficient single-window clearance system enabling speedy approvals to realty projects.
  • Curbing inflation, tax rebates on construction material for PMAY projects.
  • Adopting globally-available mass construction technologies.
  • Development of training centres across the country and to have internationally recognised certification to skilled professionals.   

References

  1. Indian Express | Addition of 3 Crore houses under PMAY
  2. Mygov.in| Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojana - Urban
  3. Vikaspedia| PMAY-Gramin
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