Tracking the World’s Climate Action Plan

iasparliament Logo
October 31, 2022

Why in news?

Leaders from countries will gather in the Egyptian city of Sharm El-Sheikh for the 27th round of the Conference of Parties (COP27) to deliberate on a global response to the increasing threat of climate change.

What is COP?

  • The Conference of Parties (COP) is the apex decision-making body of the United Nations Climate Change Framework Convention (UNFCCC).
  • The UNFCCC was formed in 1994 to stabilize greenhouse gas emissions and to protect the earth from the threat of climate change.
  • The participants at COPs are signatories to the UNFCCC and have been meeting every year since 1995.
  • At present, the UNFCCC has 198 members.
  • The first conference (COP1) was held in 1995 in Berlin.


What’s on the agenda at the upcoming COP27?

  • COP27 will seek to strengthen a global response and deliberate if wealthy nations emitting carbon dioxide should compensate for the loss to developing countries with a lower carbon footprint.
  • The summit seeks to accelerate global climate action through emissions reduction, scaled-up adaptation efforts and enhanced flows of appropriate finance.
  • The four priority areas are
    • Mitigation
    • Adaptation
    • Finance
    • Collaboration
  • COP27 will be about moving from negotiations and planning to the implementation of promises and pledges made.

How has the world been doing on climate change since the Glasgow meet?

  • Extreme weather events and scientific reports are a stark reminder of the devastating impact of human pressure on the climate and the inefficiency of existing plans.

Findings 0f Emissions Gap Report 2022

  • The report has warned that glob efforts remain insufficient to limit global temperature rise to 1.5°C, as per the Paris Agreement.
  • Even if the countries meet their pledges, we are on track for around 2.5°C of warming.
  • The report adds that emissions compared to 2010 levels need to fall 45% by 2030 to meet the Paris deal’s goal.

Findings of IPCC Report

  • The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) assessment report stated that climate change had produced irreversible losses to natural ecosystems.
  • As per the report, 3-14% of all species on earth face a very high risk of extinction at even 1.5°C.
  • It adds that limiting warming to around 1.5°C requires global greenhouse gas emissions to peak before 2025 and be reduced by 43% by 2030.

Findings of the World Resources Institute

  • It suggests that the world needs to curb emissions 6 times faster by 2030 than the current trajectory to meet the 1.5°C target.
  • Of the 40 indicators examined, none is on track to reach the 2030 target.

Where does India stand?


  • India is the third-largest greenhouse gas emitter in the world.
  • The Climate Action Tracker, an independent analysis that tracks government climate action, classifies India’s action as “highly insufficient”.
  • India had previously come under intense criticism over its stand to “phase down” coal power instead of “phasing it out”, at COP26.

What is the need of the hour?

  • Emissions from food systems as a result of consumption and production patterns, as well as of livestock needs a special focus.
  • In a first, New Zealand recently planned to tax agricultural emissions, including those from livestock burps and waste, to transition to a low emissions future.



  1. The Hindu│ Is the world’s climate action plan on track?
  2. The Indian Express│ Emissions Gap Report 2022
  3. Down to Earth│ Conference of Parties


Quick facts

Emissions from agriculture industry

  • Livestock - Emissions from livestock mainly include carbon dioxide (from urea), nitrous oxide (from livestock dung and urine), and methane (from belching) among others.
  • NASA claims that the process of cow belching (burping) releases more methane into the environment due to enteric fermentation.
  • Paddy – Paddy cultivation in wetlands prevents oxygen from penetrating the soil and creates suitable conditions for methane-emitting bacteria thus accounting for 8% of human-linked emissions.
  • Nitrous oxide and methane absorb more energy than CO2 but stay in the atmosphere for a shorter duration.
  • Over a 20-year-period, it has 80 times more GWP than carbon dioxide.
  • According to the IPCC, the Global Warming Potential (GWP) of gases is a metric that helps measure the radiative effect (the ability to absorb energy) of each unit of gas over a specific period of time such as 100 years, relative to the radiative effect of carbon dioxide.
  • An IPCC research showed methane is responsible for at least a quarter of today’s global warming.
  • The UNEP and Climate and Clean Air Coalition 2021 assessment found that cutting human or farming-related methane emissions by 45% this decade is key in the global battle against climate change.
Login or Register to Post Comments
There are no reviews yet. Be the first one to review.



Free UPSC Interview Guidance Programme