Prelim Bits 28-06-2023 | UPSC Daily Current Affairs

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June 28, 2023

Meira Paibis

The Meira Paibis deliberately blocking routes and interfering in Operations of Security Forces during critical situations to save lives and property.

  • The Meira Paibis, also known as Imas or Mothers of Manipur, are Meitei women who come from all sections of the society.
  • They are loosely organised, usually led by groups of senior women and are widely respected, and represent a powerful moral force.
  • They have no rigid hierarchy or structure, or any overt political leanings.
  • They are called women torch bearers because of the flaming torches that they hold aloft while marching in the streets, often at night.
  • Formation - It was formed in 1977.
  • Aim - Its initial focus is to fight alcoholism and drug abuse.
  • It has now expanded to countering human rights violations and the development of society at large.
  • Leadership - Every Leikai (colony) in Imphal City has a group of Meira Paibis.
  • The eldest of each group becomes its leader.

Movements by Meira Paibis

  • In 1904, they protest against the Lallup system by which men were required to perform 10 days of free labour every 30 days.
  • In 1939, they protest against the Maharaja’s economic policies.
  • In independent India, every movement in Manipur state on every issue of vital importance such as statehood for Manipur, inclusion of Manipuri in 8th schedule, or ban of alcohol was led by Meira Paibis.
  • More recently, Meira Paibis play the backbone of Irom Sharmila, the activist who remained on a hunger strike from 2000 to 2016 to protest against the Armed Forces Special Powers Act (AFSPA).
  • They performed an active role in 2015 for the Inner Line Permit (ILP)


  1. The Indian Express | Who are Meira Paibis?
  2. The Indian Express | Meira Paibis of Manipur


National Company Law Appellate Tribunal (NCLAT)

Google has filed an appeal in the Supreme Court against a verdict by the National Company Law Appellate Tribunal (NCLAT) where it upheld a penalty imposed for its anti-competitive conduct in the Android ecosystem.

  • NCLAT was constituted under Section 410 of the Companies Act, 2013 for hearing appeals against the orders of National Company Law Tribunal(s) (NCLT).
  • Enacted on - 2016.
  • Constituted by – Ministry of Corporate Affairs
  • Objectives
    • It hears appeals against the orders passed by NCLT(s) under Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code, 2016 (IBC).
    • It hears appeals against the orders passed by Insolvency and Bankruptcy Board of India.
    • It hears and dispose of appeals against any direction issued or decision made or order passed by the Competition Commission of India (CCI).
    • It is also the Appellate Tribunal to hear and dispose of appeals against the orders of the National Financial Reporting Authority.
  • The President of the Tribunal, chairperson and Judicial Members of the Appellate Tribunal, shall be appointed after consultation with the Chief Justice of India.
  • Chairperson - Chairperson shall be a person who is or has been a Judge of the Supreme Court or the Chief Justice of a High Court.
  • Term - 5 years, eligible to be reappointed.
  • A person who is/has been a judge of a High Court for at least 5 years is eligible for becoming the President of the NCLT.
  • An advocate of a court for at least 10 years, shall be eligible for becoming a Judicial Member.
  • No civil court has the right to entertain any provision regarding NCLT or NCLAT.
  • NCLT and NCLAT are judicial tribunals that exercise the jurisdiction previously vested on the High Courts.

National Company Law Tribunal (NCLT)

  • It is a quasi-judicial body in India incorporated for dealing with corporate disputes that are of civil nature arising under the Companies Act.
  • NCLT is obliged to objectively determine facts, decide cases in accordance with the principles of natural justice and draw conclusions from them in the form of orders.
  • NCLT is obliged to objectively determine facts, decide cases in accordance with the principles of natural justice and draw conclusions from them in the form of orders.



The Indian Express| Google appeal NCLAT order


Hindu-Kush Mountains

  • The Hindu Kush Himalaya (HKH) region extends 3,500 km over 8 countries from Afghanistan in the west to Myanmar in the east.
  • Range Countries - Afghanistan, Pakistan, India, Nepal, Bhutan, China, Bangladesh and Myanmar.
  • The HKH region harbours the highest mountain ranges in the world.
  • It also contains the largest volume of ice on earth outside of the polar areas and is called ‘Third Pole’.


  • The range is also the source of major Asian river system and called as ‘Water tower of Asia’.
  • HKM in India - The entire territory of 11 mountain states & Darjeeling district of West Bengal state are included in the HKH region.
  • The 11 states are Assam, Uttarakhand, Himachal Pradesh, Manipur, Jammu & Kashmir, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Sikkim, Tripura, and Arunachal Pradesh.


Down to Earth | Hindu-kush-himalayas


GI tags in U.P.

Seven products from Uttar Pradesh recently got Geographical Indication tag.

Seven GI tag given products in U.P.

Recently granted GI Tag of UP


Amroha Dholak

  • It is a musical instrument made of natural wood.

Mahoba Gaura Patthar Hastashlip


  • It is a stone craft, a very unique and soft stone with scientific name, the ‘Pyro Flight Stone’.
  • Gaura stone craft is made of radiant white-coloured stone that is predominantly found in this region.

Baghpat Home Furnishings


  • Only cotton yarn are used in the handloom weaving process.
  • It is famous for weaving on the frame loom instead of the pit loom since generations.

Barabanki Handloom Product


  • This handloom product mainly consists of cotton.
  • It is manufactured using traditional techniques.

Kalpi Handmade Paper

  • Kalpi has historically been a centre of handmade paper manufacturing.

Sambhal Horn Craft

  • Sambhal city is associated with a unique kind of horn and bone craft items.
  • The raw material used from dead animals that make this industry environment friendly.

Mainpuri Tarkash

  • Tarkashi is a technique of inlaying brass, copper, and silver wires in wood.
  • It is a unique and artistic product of the Mainpuri district.
  • It is used for decorating jewelry boxes, name plaques, and other similar items.


Geographical Indication (GI) Tag

  • GI tag is a sign used on products that have a specific geographical origin and possess qualities or a reputation that are due to that origin.
  • The products can both be natural or Man-made.
  • It is covered as a component of intellectual property rights (IPRs) under the Paris Convention for the Protection of Industrial Property.
  • At the International level, GI is governed by the World Trade Organisation’s (WTO’s) Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS).
  • GI Tag is valid for 10 years.
  • In India, Geographical Indications registration is administered by the Geographical Indications of Goods (Registration and Protection) Act, 1999.

The first product in India to be accorded with GI tag was Darjeeling tea in the year 2004-05.


  • Legal protection to the products
  • Prevents unauthorised use of GI tag products by others
  • It helps consumers to get quality products of desired traits
  • Promotes the economic prosperity of producers of GI tag goods


The Hindu | 7 products from UP get GI tag


Congo Rainforest

A recent report says that the Congo rainforest continues to vanish with half a million hectares lost in 2022.

  • It is the world’s 2nd largest tropical rainforest after the Amazon rainforest.
  • The rainforest is spread across 6 African countries - Cameroon, Central African Republic, Republic of Congo, Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), Equatorial Guinea, and Gabon.
  • 60% of the rainforest lies in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.
  • It is known for its high levels of biodiversity, including more than 600 tree species and 10,000 animal species.

Congo rainforest

  • It is the world’s largest carbon sink (anything that absorbs more carbon from the atmosphere than it releases) hence they are known as the “lungs of Africa”.

Quick Facts

Brazzaville declaration

  • It was signed to promote better management and conservation of world’s largest tropical peatlands-Cuvette Centrale region in Congo Basin from unregulated land use and prevent its drainage and degradation.
  • Brazzaville is the capital of Democratic Republic of Congo.
  • The Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), the Republic of Congo and Indonesia have jointly signed the Brazzaville declaration.

Peatlands are wetlands that contain a mixture of decomposed organic material, partially submerged in a layer of water, lacking oxygen.

Amazon Rainforest

  • It is the world’s largest tropical rainforest.
  • The rainforest spans over 9 different countries namely Brazil, Bolivia, Peru, Ecuador, Guyana, French Guiana, Suriname, Colombia and Venezuela.
  • Amazon River is the largest river in the world.
  • Amazon Rainforest is considered the ‘Lungs of the Earth’.


Down to Earth | Congo-world-s-2nd-largest-rainforest

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