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Prelim Bits 26-07-2023 | UPSC Daily Current Affairs

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July 26, 2023

No Confidence Motion

The opposition parties decided to move a no-confidence motion against the BJP government, with a particular focus on the situation in the northeastern state.

  • A no-confidence motion is a parliamentary process that allows the opposition to challenge the government’s majority and ability to govern.
  • If the motion is passed, the government of the day must resign.
  • Initiate – Any member of the Lok Sabha can move a no-confidence motion.
  • However, the motion must be supported by at least 50 members of the House.
  • Moved – A no-confidence motion must be in writing and must be signed by the member moving it.
  • The motion must be submitted to the Speaker of the Lok Sabha on any day on which the House is sitting.
  • Next step – The speaker of the Lok Sabha will decide whether to admit the motion for discussion and debate.
  • If the motion is admitted, the Speaker will then decide on the date and time for the discussion.
  • The speaker may grant time for the discussion of the motion (under sub-rule (2) and (3)) of rule 198 of Lok Sabha Rules.
  • Debate – It will be debated in the Lok Sabha.
  • It will be moved by the member who submitted it and the government will then respond to the motion.
  • The opposition parties will then have the opportunity to speak on the motion.
  • Vote – After the debate, the Lok Sabha will vote on the no-confidence motion.
  • The motion will be passed if it is supported by a majority of the members of the House.
  • Government win – The notion is defeated and the government remains in power.

References

  1. The Print – No-Confidence Motion
  2. Times of India – What is no-confidence motion?

US rejoins UNESCO

The United States as formally rejoined the UN’s scientific, educational and cultural organisation after a 5 year absence.

US & UNESCO

  • The US return to the Paris based UNESCO was mainly on concerns that China has filled a leadership gap.
  • Reagan – The US previously pulled out of the UNESCO under the Reagan administration in 1984 because it viewed the agency as corrupt and used for Soviet interests.
  • It rejoined in 2003 during George W.Bush’s presidency.
  • Trump – The Trump administration in 2017 announced that the US would withdraw from UNESCO, citing anti-Israel bias.
  • The US and Israel stopped financing UNESCO after it voted to include Palestine as a member state in 2011.
  • Biden – The Biden administration had reapplied to rejoin the 193 members organisation that plays a major role in setting international standards for artificial intelligence and technology education.
  • The US is now the 194th member of the UNESCO.

UNESCO

  • UNESCO is the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization.
  • It contributes to peace and security by promoting international cooperation in education, sciences, culture, communication and information.
  • Knowledge – UNESCO promotes knowledge sharing and the free flow of ideas to accelerate mutual understanding and a more perfect knowledge of each other's lives.
  • SDG Goals – UNESCO's programmes contribute to the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals defined in the 2030 Agenda, adopted by the UN General Assembly in 2015.

References

  1. Times of India – US formally rejoins UNESCO after 5 year absence
  2. UNESCO – Flag raising ceremony celebrating the US’s return to UNESCO

Silvopasture Systems

In light of the global deterioration of natural resources and forests, silvopasture systems offer a relevant solution to deforestation trends.

  • The system – Silvopasture is an ancient and proven practice that harmoniously integrates trees, forage and livestock on the same land.
  • Deforestation – Silvopasture can play a vital role in reversing the negative trend of deforestation for pasture land.
  • Carbon Sinks – The trees on silvopasture lands act as natural carbon sinks, sequestering significantly five-10 times more carbon then pastures without trees.

Silvopasture practices currently cover a vast expanse of 550 million hectares worldwide.

Benefits

  • Climate conditions – Silvopasture systems also regulate local climatic conditions, buffering against temperature and wind extremes, providing a favorable living environment for livestock.
  • Nutrition cycle – The extensive root systems of trees within silvopasture plots contribute to nutrient cycling, improved soil stability and quality, while effectively combating erosion.
  • Soil infiltration rates – Soil infiltration rates in silvopasture systems surpass those of open pastures, enhancing water storage potential.

Sivopastrue systems in brazil 2023

References

  1. Down To Earth – Harness silvopasture systems for local climate resilience
  2. USDA – Silvopasture

White Label ATMs (WLAs)

The Reserve Bank of India (RBI) has apprised that in order to drive ATM penetration in the country with a greater focus on Tier III to VI centres.

Automated Teller Machine (ATM)

  • Banking services – It is a computerised machine that provides customers of banks the facility of accessing their accounts for dispensing cash.
  • It also aids in carrying out other financial & non-financial transactions without the need to visit the bank branch.

WLAs

  • Non-Banks – They are ATMs set up, owned and operated by non-banks are called WLAs.
  • Non-bank ATM operators are authorised under the Payment & Settlement Systems Act, 2007 by the Reserve Bank of India (RBI).
  • The WLAs provide banking services to the customers of banks in India, based on the cards (debit/credit/prepaid) issued by banks.

Nonbank financial institutions are those that include insurance firms, venture capitalists, currency exchanges, some microloan organizations, and pawn shops.

  • Services provided – In addition to dispensing cash, WLAs may offer many other services / facilities which inter-alia include:
    1. Account Information
    2. Cash Deposit
    3. Regular Bill Payment
    4. Mini / Short Statement Generation
    5. PIN Change
    6. Request for Cheque Book
  • For a customer, using a WLA is just like using an ATM of any bank.
  • Rationale – To allow non-bank entities to set up WLAs has been to increase the geographical spread of ATMs for increased / enhanced customer service, especially in semi-urban / rural areas.

References

  1. PIB – White Label ATMs (WLAs) to drive ATM penetration in India
  2. RBI – White Label ATMs (WLAs)

Janjaitya Darpan

Marking the completion of one year of taking charge, President Droupadi Murmu inaugurated various projects at the Rashtrapati Bhawan in New Delhi.

Janjatiya Darpan

  • The President inaugurated a gallery titled ‘Janjatiya Darpan’ in the Marble Hall Museum of Rashtrapati Bhavan.
  • This gallery is an initiative to represent the common and connecting cultural traits of various Janjati communities in Bharat.

Tribals are known as Scheduled Tribes and Janjati in the Constitution.

  • Janjati heroes – Gallery consists of different themes such as unsung tribal freedom fighters, traditional natural resource management practices such as Halma, Dokra art, Gunjala Gondi script, and Warli.
  • In addition, the contemporary photographs of various Janjatis of Bharat by Satish Lal Andhekar were also displayed at the gallery.
  • Koya Pagide – The gallery has some of the very rare and unique artefacts such as scroll (Koya Pagide) depicting the life history and genealogy of Koya Janjati community from Bhadrachalam.
  • Gunjala Gondi Script – The Gunjala Gondi Script along with its detailed history is put on display at the gallery.

Navachara

  • An Artificial Intelligence enabled gallery developed by Rashtrapati Bhavan in collaboration with Intel India.
  • This gallery exhibits immersive innovations and indigenous AI solutions created by students and AI coaches.
  • It is equipped with six interactive exhibits that provide insights into the grandeur of Rashtrapati Bhavan and ignite a sense of inspiration for democratizing AI skills.

Sutra-kala Darpan

  • It is a Textile Collection which shows the remarkable collection of antique textiles of the Rashtrapati Bhavan.
  • Rashtrapati Bhavan is a repository of distinct textile traditions, ranging from zardozi and gold-embroidered velvets in its carpets, bed and table coverings, to fine muslin and silk drapes.

References

  1. The Hindu – Artefacts from Hyderabad find pride of place at Rashtrapati Bhavan
  2. PIB – President Murmu Completes One Year in Office
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