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Prelim Bits 25-10-2023 | UPSC Daily Current Affairs

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October 25, 2023

Preventive detention

Supreme court, in at least 3 separate instances, has red-flagged the Telangana government’s usage of the stringent preventive detention law.

Preventive detention

Pre-trial detention

Punitive detention

Detention of a person without trial and conviction by court, but merely on suspicion.

Detention of an accused under trial.

Detention after trial and conviction by a court.

  • Preventive detention - To prevent an individual from committing an offense in the future.

Article 22 of the Indian Constitution contains provisions for preventive detention.

  • Central Legislations - The National Security Act, the Conservation of Foreign Exchange and Prevention of Smuggling Activities Act, 1974 (COFEPOSA) are examples of laws under which preventive detention can be ordered.
  • Suspension of Fundamental rights - Part III of the Constitution gives the state the power to suspend fundamental rights for preventive detention.
  • A detainee under preventive detention can have no right of personal liberty guaranteed by Article 19 or Article 21.
  • Grounds for Preventive Detention
    • Security of state, maintenance of public order,
    • Maintenance of supplies and essential services and defense,
    • Foreign affairs or security of India.
  • Duration - The detention of a person cannot exceed 3 months unless an advisory board (consist of judges of a high court) reports sufficient cause for extended detention.
  • Rights for Detenu - The grounds of detention should be communicated to the detenu.
  • However, the facts considered to be against the public interest need not be disclosed.
  • The detenu should be afforded an opportunity to make a representation against the detention order.
  • Judicial Review - There are very narrow grounds of judicial review because the Constitution emphasises the state’s “subjective satisfaction” when ordering a detention.
  • In countries such as Britain, United States and Canada, preventive detention is a wartime measure.

References

The Indian Express | How preventive detention works?

 

Ghost particles

China is building the World’s largest neutrino detector called “Trident” in the Western Pacific Ocean.

  • About - Neutrinos, also known as the Ghost Particles, are a type of electron but they do not have any charge.
  • Family - Neutrinos belong to the family of particles known as leptons. There are 3 main leptons, namely electrons, muons and tau particles.
  • Symbol - Neutrinos are denoted by the Greek symbol ν, or nu.
  • Mass - They are among the most abundant and tiniest particles in the universe and have very small mass.
  • Source - Neutrinos come from all kinds of different sources and are often the product of heavy particles turning into lighter ones, a process called decay.
  • Interactions - Neutrino’s weak charge and almost non-existent mass have made it difficult to observe and impossible to track.
  • Underwater Telescope - Neutrinos sometimes interact with water molecules that is why China is building its ghost molecule telescope underwater.

Currently, the largest neutrino-detecting telescope is the University of Madison-Wisconson’s “IceCube” telescope situated in the Antarctic.

References

  1. The Indian Express | world’s largest ‘ghost particle’ detector
  2. NDTV | Scientists Detect 'Ghost Particles'
  3. Space | what are neutrinos?

 

Vikram 1 Rocket

Hyderabad-based space startup Skyroot Aerospace has recently unveiled ‘Vikram-1’ with an expected space launch in early 2024.

Vikram-1

  • Stages - Multi-stage launch vehicle
  • Body - All-carbon-fibre.
  • Payload - 300 kg payloads
  • Orbit - Low Earth Orbit.
  • Fuel - Mixture of solid fuel at the lower stage and a mixture of liquid fuel in the upper stages to propel the rocket into the orbit.
  • It has a Raman-II engine in the 4th stage.
  • The Raman-II engine is regeneratively cooled and uses Mono Methyl Hydrazine and Nitrogen Tetroxide as propellants.
  • It also features 3D-printed liquid engines.
  • The Vikram-1 is expected to perform its first flight to space in the first quarter of 2024. It will launch satellites.
  • It is the second rocket from the company after Vikram-S, the country's first privately-built rocket.
  • The ‘Vikram’ in the launch vehicles' name is a tribute to Vikram Sarabhai, the father of India's space programme.

References

  1. The Hindu | Vikram 1
  2. Hindustan Times | Vikram 1
  3. Times of India | Skyroot unveils Vikram-1

 

International Migration Outlook 2023

India saw the highest migration flows to OECD countries in 2021 and 2022, according to the ‘International Migration Outlook 2023’ released recently.

  • The 2023 edition of International Migration Outlook analyses recent developments in migration movements and the labour market inclusion of immigrants in OECD countries.
  • It also monitors recent policy changes in migration governance and integration in OECD countries.

Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) is an association of 38 member countries, most being rich developed nations that attract migrant workers and students.

  • India - India saw the highest migration flows to OECD countries in 2021 and 2022.
  • India replaced China as the main country of origin of new migrants to OECD countries in 2020.
  • In 2021, for the 2nd consecutive year, India, with 0.41 million new migrants, was the top country of origin.
  • India was followed by China and Romania interms of new migrants.
  • Inflows of refugees - Due to the ongoing Russia-Ukraine war, inflows of refugees from Ukraine reached the highest level on record.

OECD report

References

  1. Down to Earth | Indians migrated to OECD countries
  2. OECD | International Migration Outlook 2023

 

Vajra Mushti Kalaga

Vajra Mushti Kalaga, a martial art form of the Wadiyars was in declining trend.

  • The ‘’vajra mushti kalaga’’ is a form of wrestling different from the conventional grappling.
  • It is a traditional Indian martial art that uses a small metal weapon called a knuckleduster. The name literally means "Thunderbolt Fist".
  • It entails two jettys taking a swipe at each other’s head with a knuckleduster.
  • The art incorporates various hand-to-hand combat techniques, such as grappling, wrestling, and striking.
  • Vajra Mushti matches are still held during the annual Mysore Dasara festival at Mysore Palace.
  • The tradition dates back to the Wadiyar dynasty in 1610.
  • Modern combatants use knuckle-dusters with blunt studs. The weapon is sometimes called Indra-musti, which means "Indra's fist".
  • Whosoever draws the blood from the opponent’s head first is declared the winner.
  • Medieval travellers from Portuguese noticed this form of wrestling during the Navaratri celebrations in Vijayanagar empire and have left detailed accounts of it.

References

The Hindu | ’vajra mushti kalaga’

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