Prelim Bits 24-06-2023 | UPSC Daily Current Affairs

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June 24, 2023

Liaquat-Nehru Pact

It has been 73 years since the treaty of Liaquat-Nehru pact signed between India and Pakistan.

  • It was signed in 1950 by the prime ministers, Jawaharlal Nehru and Liaquat Ali Khan.
  • It was a bilateral treaty between India and Pakistan regarding the rights of minorities and refugees.
  • Aim - To provide a framework for the treatment of minorities in both countries following Partition, which was accompanied by massive communal rioting.
  • The Nehru-Liaquat Pact is also known as the Delhi Pact, 1950.
  • An estimated 1 million people Hindus from East Pakistan and Muslims from West Bengal crossed the borders during 1950 after the partition.
  • Features  - It is to ensure that
    • Refugees were allowed to return unmolested to dispose of their property,
    • Abducted women and looted property were to be returned,
    • Forced conversions were unrecognized, and
    • Minority rights were confirmed.
  • Minority commissions were established to implement these terms, and confidence was in fact restored for a time.
  • The Governments of India and Pakistan solemnly agree that each shall ensure, to the minorities throughout its territory, complete equality of citizenship.
  • Members of the minority shall have the equal opportunity with the members of the majority community.
  • They have the rights to participate in the public life, to hold political and other office and to serve in civil and armed forces of their country.
  • Both governments agreed to declare these rights to be fundamental and undertake to enforce them respectively.


The Indian Express | liaquat-nehru-pact


Gandhi Peace Prize

Gandhi Peace Prize 2021 has been conferred upon Gorakhpur-based Gita Press

  • Instituted Year – 1995, on the 125th birth anniversary of Mahatma Gandhi.
  • Eligibility - It is awarded for social, economic and political transformation through non-violence, to any deserving persons or institutions, annually by the Government of India.
  • It is open to all persons regardless of nationality, race, language, caste, creed or gender and any association, institution or organisation.
  • Work achieved within the 10 years preceding the nomination is considered for the award.
  • Rewards - The award carries a cash prize of ₹1 crore, a citation, a plaque and an exquisite traditional handicraft/handloom item.
  • Awarding Committee - The awardee is selected by a 5-member jury comprising of the Prime Minster, Chief Justice of India, Leader of Opposition and 2 eminent personalities.
  • The decision of the jury is final and cannot be challenged or appealed.
  • Gandhi Peace Joint Award – If 2 persons or an organization deserved equally for this prize.
  • Past Awardees - Ramakrishna Mission (1998), Grameen Bank (2000), Nelson Mandela (2000), ISRO (2014), Sheikh Mujibur Rahman (2020).        

Gita Press

  • Founded in 1923 by Hanuman Prasad Poddar and Jay Dalal Goyandka.
  • It is a unit of Gobind Bhawan Karyalaya, Kolkata, registered under the West Bengal Societies Act, 1960.
  • It is one of the world’s largest publishers and is most famous for publishing the Hindu text Srimad Bhagwat Gita.
  • As of date, the institution has published 41.7 crore books in 14 languages, including 16.21 crore copies of the Gita.


The Hindu | gita-press-gandhi-peace-prize-explained



Recently face authentication feature is enabled in PM-Kisan mobile app expansion.

  • It is a Central Sector scheme with 100% funding from Government of India.
  • Launch Year - 2018.
  • Ministry – Ministry of Agriculture and Farmers welfare.
  • Features - Under this scheme an income support of 6,000/- per year in 3 equal installments will be provided to all land holding farmer families (subject to exclusion criteria).
  • Under the PM Kisan scheme, the farmer can also get a loan facility in the form of short-term loans by using Kisan Credit Card (KCC).
  • Definition of family for the scheme is husband, wife and minor children.
  • Identification of Beneficiaries - State Government and UT administration will identify the farmer families which are eligible for support as per scheme guidelines.
  • The fund will be directly transferred to the bank accounts of the beneficiaries.
  • It has roped in India Post Payment Bank (IPPB) to open Aadhaar linked bank accounts for beneficiaries at their doorstep and asked Common Services Centres to organize village-level e-KYC camps with the help of States/UTs.

PM-KISAN Mobile App

  • It is developed and designed by the National Informatics Centre in collaboration with the Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology.
  • The farmers can view the status of their application, update or carry out corrections of their Aadhaar cards and also check the history of credits to their bank accounts.
  • Face authentication feature will enable beneficiary farmers to complete their e-KYC process by just scanning their face on mobile phones instead of using one-time password or fingerprints.
  • It is the first government scheme to have this feature.


The Indian Express | face-authentification-now-in-pm-kisan-mobile-app


Minerals Security Partnership

India joins US-led Mineral Security Partnership (MSP) recently.

  • Launch – 2022.
  • It is a US-led collaboration of countries that includes Australia, Canada, Finland, France, Germany, Japan, the Republic of Korea, Sweden, UK, the European Commission, Italy, and now India.
  • It is also known as the critical minerals alliance.
  • Aim - To ensure that critical minerals are produced, processed and recycled in a way that helps countries secure a stable supply of critical minerals for their economies.
  • The focus is primarily on the supply chains of critical minerals such as cobalt, nickel, lithium and the 17 "rare earth" minerals.
  • Objectives  
    • Strengthened information sharing between partner countries
    • Increased investment in secure critical minerals supply chains
    • Develop recycling technologies

Critical minerals

  • Critical minerals - A critical mineral is a metallic or non-metallic element that is essential for the functioning of our modern technologies, economies or national security and there is a risk that its supply chains could be disrupted.
  • Many critical minerals, including rare earth minerals and metals such as lithium, gallium, tellurium, and indium, are central to high-tech sectors.
  • The major critical minerals - Graphite, lithium and cobalt are used for making semiconductors, high-end electronics manufacturing, fighter jets, drones, and radio sets.
  • Rare earth minerals – Rare earth minerals are a set of 17 metallic elements, which includes scandium, yttrium, and the 15 lanthanides.
  • Examples - Lanthanum, cerium, neodymium, praseodymium and samarium, dysprosium, terbium, europium.
  • It is used a wide range of applications such as cellular telephones, flat-screen monitors and televisions, and electric vehicles.
  • Top producers – According to the International Energy Agency, the major producers of critical minerals are China, Congo, Chile, Indonesia, South Africa, and Australia.
  • China has global dominance in terms of processing.

India and Australia decided to strengthen their partnership in the field of projects and supply chains for critical minerals under the Australia-India Critical Minerals Investment Partnership.


The Indian Express | India-joins-us-led-critical-mineral-club-boost-likely-for-ev-electronics

Business Standard | India-news/minerals-security-partnership-what-is-it


Carbon-dioxide Auroras

NASA’s satellite spots infrared carbon dioxide aurora from outer space


  • An aurora is a natural light display that shimmers in the sky.
  • When solar storm interacts with the magnetic field lines at the north and south poles into Earth's atmosphere, it results in beautiful displays of light called auroras.
  • Auroras are only visible at night, and usually only appear in lower polar regions.
  • Oxygen gives off green and red light and Nitrogen glows blue and purple.
  • Auroras are visible near the Arctic and Antarctic Circles, which are about 66.5 degrees north and south of the Equator.
  • In the north, the display is called aurora borealis, or northern lights.
  • In the south, it is called aurora australis, or southern lights.

Carbon-dioxide Auroras

  • A NASA satellite has spotted an aurora that is invisible in optical frequencies.
  • While carbon dioxide is known for its effects on the troposphere as a greenhouse gas, it also exists in trace amounts in Earth's atmosphere at the edge of space.
  • High above Earth, near 90 km, Co2 becomes vibrationally excited during an aurora, emitting more infrared radiation than typically observed in the atmosphere.


The Indian Express | satellite-carbon-dioxide-aurora


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