Prelim Bits 23-03-2024 | UPSC Daily Current Affairs

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March 23, 2024

World Happiness Report 2024

The World Happiness Report 2024 was released on March 20 to mark the UN’s International Day of Happiness.

  • Aim - To measure, quantify, and compare happiness levels around the world.
  • Brought by - A partnership of Gallup, the Oxford Wellbeing Research Centre, the UN Sustainable Development Solutions Network, and the WHR’s Editorial Board.
  • First published in - 2012.
  • ProcedureThe Gallup World Poll surveys around 1,000 respondents in nearly every country on a variety of issues on a scale of 0–10.
  • The World Happiness Report then averages the score from life evaluations per country over a 3 year period (2021–2023) and ranks from highest to lowest.
  • Indicators - The ranking is based on individuals' own assessment of their life satisfaction, alongside factors like GDP per capita, social support, and life expectancy.
  • Key findings of 2024 Report– Ranks 143 nations and for the 1st time, the report gives separate rankings by age group, in many cases varying widely from the overall rankings.
    • Lithuania tops the list for children and young people under 30.
    • Denmark is the world's happiest nation for those 60 and older.
  • For the 1st time since the report was published, the United States (23rd) and Germany (24th) did not find a place among the list of 20 happiest nations.
  • The latest report discovered that younger generations generally report higher levels of happiness compared to older age groups across most regions worldwide.

World happiness report, 2024

Most Happy Countries

Least Happy Countries

Finland (for the 7th year in a row )






India’s Case

  • India is ranked 126th, behind countries such as Libya, Iraq, Palestine and Niger.
  • The young in India are the happiest while those in lower middle rung are the least happy.
  • Older men, those in the higher age groups, currently married, and those who were educated, report higher life satisfaction compared to their respective peers.


  1. Hindustan Times | World Happiness Report
  2. VisualCapitalist | Image


Pushpak, an SUV-sized winged rocket released from an Indian Airforce Chinook helicopter successfully landed through RLV LEX-02 experiment recently.

  • Pushpak is a Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV).
  • Developed by - Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO).
  • This is ISRO’s 2nd series of RLV landing experiment.

RLV-LEX -01 Experiment is the first test with RLV-TD (HEX1) involved the vehicle landing on a runway over the Bay of Bengal.

RLV-LEX-02 Experiment

  • It demonstrated the autonomous landing capability of RLV from off-nominal initial conditions at release from a helicopter.
  • Pushpak, was lifted by an Indian Airforce Chinook helicopter and was released from 4.5 km altitude.
  • After release at a distance of 4 km from the runway, Pushpak autonomously approached the runway along with cross-range corrections.
  • It landed precisely on the runway and came to a halt using its brake parachute, landing gear brakes and nose wheel steering system.

Reusable Launch Vehicle – Technology Demonstrator (RLV-TD)

  • It is a series of tests in developing essential technologies for a fully reusable launch vehicle to enable low-cost access to space.
  • The configuration of RLV-TD is similar to that of an aircraft.
  • It has been configured to act as a flying test bed to evaluate various technologies.
  • It will become the first stage of India’s reusable two stage orbital launch vehicle.
  • Objectives of RLV-TD
    • Hypersonic aero thermodynamic characterisation of wing body
    • Evaluation of autonomous Navigation, Guidance and Control (NGC) schemes
    • Integrated flight management
    • Thermal Protection System Evaluation


  1. NDTV | Pushpak
  2. The Indian Express | Pushpak RLV landing experiment
  3. Business Standard | Pushpak

Kashmir’s Hangul (Cervus hanglu hangul)

Despite conservation efforts, Kashmir’s hangul deer risk is facing extinction.

  • About - It is also known as the Kashmir stag or Kashmiri red stag which is highly shy and sensitive animal.
  • It is the only Asiatic survivor or sub-species of the European red deer.
  • State animal - It is the State animal of Jammu and Kashmir.


  • Habitat – It lives in dense riverine forests, high valleys and mountains of the Kashmir valley and northern Chamba in Himachal Pradesh.
  • DistributionIt is endemic to the hills of Kashmir and restricted to the Dachigam National Park.
  • Conservation Status
    • IUCN - Critically endangered
    • CITES - Appendix I
  • Threats - Habitat loss, poaching.

Dachigam National Park

  • Dachigam National Park is located in Jammu and Kashmir.
  • It is in the Zabarwan Range of the western Himalayas and was established in 1981.
  • A protected area since 1910, it was declared as a national park in 1981.
  • Other inhabitants at Dachigam are Musk deer, Brown Bear, Leopards, Jungle Cats, Himalayan black bear, and a few species of wild goat like the markhor and ibex.


  1. Scroll | Kashmir's Hangul
  2. Wildlife Sos | Kashmiri Stag
  3. Azim Premji University | Kashmiri Hangul

Netravati Waterfront Promenade Project

National Green Tribunal (NGT) in New Delhi has recently initiated action on the Netravati Waterfront Promenade Development Project in Mangaluru, Karnataka.

  • Promenade project includes
    • Setting up a biodiversity park and
    • Creation of a bird-watching area near the netravati railway bridge,
    • Building a pathway and laying a cycle track from the bridge to bolar sea face.
  • The project is implemented by Mangaluru Smart City Limited (MSCL), a special-purpose vehicle created under the Union Government's Smart City Mission.
  • Issue- National Environmental Conservation Foundation (NECF) in Karnataka had raised concerns regarding the project’s impact on the lives of common people in the area.
  • NGT has taken suo motu cognisance and directed the formation of a joint committee to submit a detailed report on the project.
  • The Project has been in controversy due to alleged violations of Coastal Regulation Zone (CRZ) norms and environmental regulations.
  • Furthermore, there is no environmental impact assessment (EIA) report prepared for this project.
  • Netravati River - The Netravati River, also known as the Bantwal River originates in the Bangrabalige valley of Yelaneeru Ghat in Karnataka.
  • It joins the Kumaradhara River before emptying into the Arabian Sea.
  • The Netravati is considered one of India's holy rivers and flows through the famous pilgrimage site of Dharmasthala.


  1. Down to Earth | Netravati Waterfront Promenade Development Project
  2. News Karnataka | Netravati Waterfront Promenade Development Project

Nomination Procedure

Filing of nominations for the 1st phase of the Lok Sabha polls began recently.

  • Nomination Process - The process of nomination starts with the release of the notification for the Lok Sabha elections.
  • Under this process, the candidates register their names with the Election Commission and claim that they are the right contenders to get public votes in the Lok Sabha election field.
  • After examining all the certificates submitted by the candidates, the Election Commission decides their candidature for the Lok Sabha elections.
  • Only after their candidature is finalised, the candidates can enter the election field and spread their campaign and seek votes in their favour.
  • Eligibility - Any Indian citizen whose name is in the voter list can make nomination for the Lok Sabha seat.
  • When a candidate is nominated by a political party, it is said that the candidates has got a ticket from the party.
  • Independent candidates - Independent candidates file their nominations with their symbols, Election Commission examines their application for the symbol and allocates the party symbol after that.
  • Submission authority - The nomination form can be submitted to the District Election Officer along with the prescribed amount as security deposit and submit an affidavit.
  • Document submission - The nominators have to submit their passport size photo, Aadhar card, PAN card, domicile, caste certificate.
  • Property details - The candidate has to give the details of their movable and immovable properties, income, expenditure, and loans of their wife and dependent children.
  • Cases against the candidate - If any criminal case is going on against the candidate, or a court case is registered or if punishment has been given in any case, they also have to inform the Election Commission about that.
  • Withdrawal process - The candidate can withdraw their name after a few days of nomination.


  1. The Hindu | Filing of nominations for loksabha
  2. The Indian Express | Loksabha nominations
  3. Zee Business | Lok Sabha Elections 2024


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