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Prelim Bits 22-07-2023 | UPSC Daily Current Affairs

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July 22, 2023

Intellectual Property Rights Policy Management framework

  • Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) - It refers to the legal rights that protect the creations of the mankind.
  • These creations include inventions, literary and artistic works, symbols, names, and images used in commerce.
  • Objective - To provide creators with exclusive rights to their intellectual property and to prevent others from using, selling, or reproducing their work without permission.
  • Intellectual Property Rights Policy Management (IPRPM) framework was launched in the form of National IPR Policy 2016.
  • It encompasses all IPRs into a single vision document setting in place an institutional mechanism for implementation, monitoring and review of IP laws.
  • The framework includes the intellectual property rights of Patents, Trade mark, Industrial Designs, Copyrights, Geographical Indications, Semiconductor Integrated Circuit Layout Design, Trade Secret, and Plant Varieties.

Types of IPR

Legal Provisions

Purpose

Term of Protection

Patents

Patent Act, 1970

Protects inventors for their inventions

20 years

Trademarks

Trademark Act

1999 &

Trademark Rules 2017

Protects logos, symbols, and brand names

10 years (renewed for 10 years)

Copyrights

Copyrights Act 1957 &

 

Copyrights Rules 2013

 

Protects literary, artistic, and musical works

Authors - Lifetime+60 years

Producers - 60 years

Performers - 50 years

Trade secrets

Common Law approach covered through IPC, Contract Act, IP Act and Copyright

Protects confidential information

Till the time confidentiality           is safeguarded

Geographical indications

Geographical Indications Act

1999 & GI Rules 2002

 

Protects the names of products that originate from a particular region and have a unique quality or reputation.

10    years (renewed for     10     years)

Designs

Designs Act 2000

& Designs (Amendment) Rules 2021

Protects new or original designs(ornamental / visual appearance discernible to the human eye) which can be replicated industrially

10 + 5 years

Semiconductor

Integrated Circuits Layout Design

Semiconductor

Integrated Circuits Layout Design Act 2000 & Rules 2001

A layout of transistors and other circuitry elements including lead wires connecting such elements and expressed in any manner in semiconductor integrated circuits.

10 Years

Plant Varieties

Protection of Plant

 

Varieties and Farmers Rights Act (PPVFRA), 2001

Traditional varieties and landraces, all developed varieties (non-traditional and non-landrace) in trade/use for older than 1 year and not older than 15 years or 18 years (in case of trees and vines), and new plant varieties.

6-10 years

India is a member of the World Trade Organization (WTO) and has signed the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS).

References

1. PIB | Intellectual Property Rights Policy Management framework

2. Legal Service India | Intellectual Property Rights

Kodava Community

Members of the Kodava community are demanding constituencies in Parliament and the Karnataka Assembly on the lines of the Sangha virtual constituency.

  • Origin – One theory says they are the descendants of Alexander the Great, while another traces their origins to a band of Kurds from Iraq.
  • Habitat - Kodavas are a unique race of people who live in Kodagu (Coorg), the smallest district in Karnataka.
  • Occupation - This land-owning community known for its martial traditions, has a distinct culture that is strikingly different from that of the neighbouring cultures.
  • Language - Kodava language does not have a script, is a mixture of Kannada, Tamil and Malayalam.
  • Society - The Kodava community of Coorg is a patrilineal society.
  • Religion - Kodavas are Hindus, but priests have no role in their marriages.
  • Worship - Kodavas are basically ancestor and nature worshippers.
  • Every Kodava is a member of a patrilineal okka (clan) that has descended from a common ancestor.
  • The Karanava, the first ancestor of the clan, is revered as a god, and Kodavas worship the the ancestral spirit, their Guru Karona.
  • There are no idols in the kaimada, the central place of ancestor worship
  • Kodavas revere the Cauvery River, they worship nature and guns.
  • Festivals - Puthari (harvest festival ushered in with a gunshot) Keil Murtha (festival is dedicated to guns) and Kaveri Sankramana.
  • Women Empowerment - Kodava women are highly educated. There is no dowry systemKodava families treat their daughters and sons similarly when it comes to education.
  • Kodava women tend to be well educated, often reaching high levels in their chosen careers.

Sangha Virtual Constituency

  • Sangha Assembly constituency is one of the constituencies in the 32-member Assembly of Sikkim, a State in the northeast region of India.
  • The Sangha constituency doesn’t exist on the map.
  • This seat is reserved for the Buddhist monastic community of Sikkim, Buddhist monks and nuns.
  • Voters recognized with monasteries in Sikkim State are the only ones who can contest and cast their votes for the Sangha constituency seat.

References

1. The Hindu | Kodava community demands virtual constituency

2. The Hindu | Who are the Kodavas?

3. Deccan Herald | Are Kodavas, who belong to a unique race, Hindus?

Pronab Sen Committee

Government forms new panel to review all NSO data revamping a Standing Committee on Economic Statistics (SCES) set up in late 2019.

  • Pronab Sen - India’s first chief statistician and the former chairman of the National Statistical Commission (NSC).
  • The committee will review and develop the country’s surveys on employment, industry and services sector.
  • It works under the aegis of the National Statistical Office (NSO).
  • Ministry - Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation (MoSPI).
  • The committee has also been mandated to provide guidance to conduct pilot surveys/ pre-testing, if necessary, before finalising schedules for data collection.
  • It will also provide guidance for studying and exploring the availability of administrative statistics.
  • The committee can also provide technical guidance to the central and state-level agencies for the surveys.
  • Members - As of now, the SCoS has 14 members, out of which there are 4 non-official members, 9 official members and a member secretary, chaired by Sen.
  • It is extendable based on the requirement from time to time.

References

1. The Hindu | Government forms new panel to review all NSO data

2. The Indian Express | Govt sets up panel to review conduct of surveys

Crimean- Congo Haemorrhagic Fever

Alert has been sounded about the Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF), an infection spread by ticks that has a high fatality rate, according to the World Health Organization (WHO).

  • Crimean- Congo Haemorrhagic Fever - It is a viral haemorrhagic fever usually transmitted by Ixodid (hard) ticks, especially those of the genus, Hyalomma, are both a reservoir and a vector for the CCHF virus.
  • It can also be contracted through contact with viraemic animal tissues (animal tissue where the virus has entered the bloodstream) during and immediately post-slaughter of animals.
  • The disease progression can be subdivided into 4 different stages - incubation period, pre-hemorrhagic, hemorrhagic and the convalescent phases.
  • Transmission - Transmission to humans occurs through contact with infected ticks or animal blood.
  • CCHF can be transmitted from one infected human to another by contact with infectious blood or body fluids.
  • Diagnosis - Laboratory tests like antigen-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), real time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), virus isolation attempts, and detection of antibody by ELISA (IgG and IgM).
  • Treatment - The virus is sensitive in vitro to the antiviral drug ribavirin.
  • It has been used in the treatment of CCHF patients reportedly with some benefit.
  • Spread so far - The CCHF is endemic to Africa, the Balkan countries, Middle East, and parts of Asia.
  • Cases have so far been reported in Eastern Europe, throughout the Mediterranean, in northwestern China, central Asia, southern Europe, Africa, the Middle East, and the Indian subcontinent.
  • In India, one person recently succumbed to CCHF recently in Gujarat, the state that reports the majority of the country’s cases of this disease.
  • Prevention - Insect repellants containing DEET (N, N-diethyl-m-toluamide) are the most effective in warding off ticks.

   Crimean congo Haemorraghic fever

References

1. The Indian Express | Climate change aiding spread of deadly virus

2. WHO | Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever

Export Preparedness Index (2022)

NITI Aayog is releasing the 3rd edition of Export Preparedness Index (EPI) for States/UTs of India for the year 2022.

  • Aim - The index undertakes a comprehensive analysis of States and UTs across export-related parameters in order to identify their strengths and weaknesses.
  • It is a comprehensive tool which measures the export preparedness of the States and UTs in India.
  • Released by - NITI Aayog.
  • It seeks to assist the States and UTs in driving policy changes which are relevant to address their specific challenges rather than comparing with the previous editions.
  • Pillars - EPI assess the performance of the States and UTs across 4 pillars
    • Policy,
    • Business Ecosystem,
    • Export Ecosystem,
    • Export Performance.
  • Each pillar is composed of sub-pillars, which in turn capture a state’s performance using relevant indicators.
  • 10 sub-pillars – Export Promotion Policy; Institutional Framework; Business Environment; Infrastructure; Transport Connectivity; Export Infrastructure; Trade Support; R&D Infrastructure; Export Diversification; and Growth Orientation.
  • Top 5 states/UTs in the Export Preparedness Index (2022)

Rank

State

Category

Score

1

Tamil Nadu

Coastal

80.89

2

Maharashtra

Coastal

78.20

3

Karnataka

Coastal

76.36

4

Gujarat

Coastal

73.22

5

Haryana

Landlocked

63.65

  • The ranking is based on 4 types of states namely, Coastal states, Landlocked states, Himalayan and UT/Small States.
  • The most ‘Coastal States’ have performed well with top 5 performers are Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra, Karnataka, Gujarat and Haryana and the least performing state/UT is Lakshadweep in all categories.

References

1. PIB | 3rd edition of the ‘Export Preparedness Index (EPI) 2022

2. The Hindu | Tamil Nadu tops NITI Aayog export preparedness index

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