Prelim Bits 16-12-2022 | UPSC Daily Current Affairs

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December 16, 2022

PM Virasat Ka Samvardhan

The Pradhan Mantri Kaushal Ko Kaam Karyakram (PMKKK) has been named as Pradhan Mantri Virasat Ka Samvardhan (PM VIKAS) Scheme.

  • Pradhan Mantri Virasat Ka Samvardhan (PM VIKAS) is a central-sector scheme under Ministry of Minority Affairs.
  • PM VIKAS focusses on the skilling, entrepreneurship and leadership training requirements of the minority and artisan communities across the country.
  • PM VIKAS is an integrated scheme that converges five erstwhile schemes of the Ministry of Minority Affairs viz.
    • Seekho aur Kamao, USTTAD, Hamari Dharohar, Nai Roshni and Nai Manzil.
  • The scheme has been approved by the Cabinet for the period of 15th Finance Commission (up to 2025-26).
  • The Scheme aims to improve livelihoods of the minorities, particularly the artisan communities.
  • The scheme has 4 components.
    1. Skilling and Training Component
      • Traditional Training (earlier Hamari Dharohar and USTTAD)
      • Non-traditional Skilling (earlier Seekho aur Kamao)
    2. Leadership and Entrepreneurship Component (earlier Nai Roshni)
    3. Education Component (earlier Nai Manzil)
    4. Infrastructure Development Component (through Hub and Spoke Villages)


  1. PIB - PMKKK named as PPM VIKAS Scheme
  2. Vikaspedia - Pradhan Mantri Virasat Ka Samvardhan  
  3. MoMA - PM VIKAS


India successfully test-fired Agni-V ballistic missile having increased range of 5,000 km.

The Agni-V project is aimed at boosting India's nuclear deterrence against China which is known to have missiles like Dongfeng-41 having ranges between 12,000-15,000 km.

  • Agni-5 has been successfully tested multiple times since 2012.
  • The Agni-V missile was test-fired from the APJ Abdul Kalam Island off Odisha coast.
  • The test-fire was carried out by the Strategic Forces Command (SFC) which operates the Agni-5.
  • The missile was developed by the Defence Research and Development organisation (DRDO) as a part of the Integrated Guided Missile Development Program (IGMDP).
Strategic Forces Command (SFC) is a key tri-services formation that manages and administers all the strategic assets and falls under purview of the Nuclear Command Authority of India.
  • Agni-V is an inter-continental nuclear capable missile.
  • The missile has a very high degree of accuracy to hit targets.
  • It has a height of 17 metres and it is capable of carrying a 1.5-tonne warhead.
  • Fuel - The missile uses a three-stage solid-fuelled engine.
  • Range – 5000km. almost entire Asia including the northernmost part of China as well as some regions in Europe.


  1. The Hindu - India test-fires Agni-V ballistic missile
  2. Hindustan Times - The range of Agni V missile is increased

Surface Water and Ocean Topography

SpaceX launched NASA’s water-monitoring satellite - SWOT to conduct first global water survey from space.

  • Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) is an advanced radar satellite designed to give an unprecedented view of water.
  • It is developed by NASA in collaboration with its French and Canadian counterparts.
  • Significance - The precise data gathered by SWOT will help researchers in
    • Understanding ocean-circulation models.
    • Bolster weather and climate forecasts.
    • Aid in managing scarce freshwater supplies in drought-stricken regions.
    • Predict storm-surge flooding penetration inland
    • Predict the extent of saltwater intrusion into estuaries, wetlands and underground aquifers.
  • Radar Technology - The advanced microwave radar technology enables to collect height-surface measurements of water bodies in high-definition detail over 90% of the globe.
  • The radar instrument operates at the Ka-band frequency of the microwave spectrum.
  • The Ka-band frequency allows scans to penetrate cloud cover and darkness over wide swaths (120km wide) of the Earth.


  1. Indian Express - NASA's SWOT
  2. NASA - SWOT
  3. Space - SpaceX launches SWOT satellite

India-Bhutan-China Tri-junction

China has set up a ropeway near the Torsa Nala on its side of the India-Bhutan-China tri-junction days after the scuffle near Yangste region near Tawang.

East of Bhutan


  • The Yangtse area of Tawang sector in Arunachal Pradesh saw a scuffle between India and China.
  • Tawang, indeed nearly all of Arunachal, is claimed by China.
  • It is one of the more serious dispute points between India and China in the overall border question.

Tawang is the birthplace of the sixth Dalai Lama and an important pilgrimage centre for Tibetan Buddhists. The 14th Dalai Lama took refuge in Tawang after he crossed over from Tibet to India in 1959.

  • Yangtse is one of the 25 contested areas along the Line of Actual Control (LAC).
  • 3488-km LAC between the two countries stretches from the Western Sector to Middle Sector to Eastern Sector.
  • Yangtse is located 30-35 km northeast of Tawang and is at an altitude of around 17,000 feet.

West of Bhutan


  • Torsa Nala is the base of Doklam plateau, where the ropeway is being constructed.
  • Doklam is a tri-juction between India-Bhutan-China.
  • Doklam saw a 73-day standoff between Indian and Chinese forces in 2017.


  1. The Hindu - China builds ropeway, roads near tri-junction

Steps Taken For Cybersecurity in India

The National Security Council Secretariat (NSCS) has formulated a draft National Cyber Security Strategy.

  • The draft strategy holistically address the issue of security of national cyberspace.
  • Several steps are taken by the Government to ensure national cybersecurity. Few are mentioned below.
  • CERT-In - The Indian Computer Emergency Response Team (CERT-In) is the nodal agency for responding to computer security incidents as and when they occur.
  •  The CERT-In issues alerts and advisories regarding latest cyber threats/vulnerabilities and countermeasures to protect computers and networks on an ongoing basis.
  • Cyber Swachhta Kendra - CERT-In operates the Cyber Swachhta Kendra (Botnet Cleaning and Malware Analysis Centre) and works
    1. To detect malicious programmes and free tools to remove the same.
    2. To provide cyber security tips and best practices for citizens and organisations
  • I4C - The Indian Cyber Crime Coordination Centre (I4C) functions under the Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA).
  • I4C is designated as the nodal point in the fight against cybercrime.
  • Guidelines - The Ministry of Home Affairs has issued National Information Security Policy and Guidelines to the Central Ministries as well as State governments and Union Territories.
  • The guidelines aim of preventing information security breaches and cyber intrusions in the ICT infrastructure.
  • Campaign - CERT-In and the Reserve Bank of India [RBI] jointly carry out a cybersecurity awareness campaign on ‘Beware and be aware of financial frauds’ through the Digital India Platform
  • The RBI has issued various instructions in respect of security and risk-mitigation measures related to electronic/digital transactions.
  • India has proposed criminalisation of cyber terrorism under the UN convention, as a member of the UNGA.
  • Cyber Surakshit Bharat Initiative, Cyberdome of Kerala are few other initiatives for ensuring cyber security.


  1. The Hindu - Draft cybersecurity strategy
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