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Prelim Bits 16-06-2019

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June 16, 2019

Kerosene from Co2

  • For the first time, German researchers have used sunlight, carbon dioxide (CO2) and water to make kerosene.
  • A novel technology uses concentrated solar energy to synthesize liquid hydrocarbon fuel from water and CO2.
  • For this product, CO2 and water are taken directly from the air and split using solar energy.
  • The process yields synthesis gas or syngas a mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide.
  • It is subsequently processed and converted into kerosene, methanol or other hydrocarbons.
  • The demonstration of this technology could have large effects on the transport sector, especially for aviation and shipping that will remain dependent on liquid fuels for long distances.
  • The technology is part of the European Union’s sun-to-liquid project, which began in 2016 with the aim to decarbonize the transport sector.

Kimberley Process

  • The Kimberley Process is an international certification scheme that regulates trade in rough diamonds.
  • It aims to prevent the flow of conflict diamonds while helping to protect legitimate trade in rough diamonds.
  • The Kimberley Process Certification Scheme (KPCS) outlines the rules that govern the trade in rough diamonds.
  • India is a founding member of KPCS.
  • The KP is not an international organization or an international agreement from a legal perspective, it relies on the contributions of participants, supported by industry and civil society observers.
  • “Conflict Diamonds” means rough diamonds used by rebel movements or their allies to finance conflict aimed at undermining legitimate governments. 
  • It is also described in the United Nations Security Council (UNSC) resolutions.
  • India is currently the Chair of Kimberley Process Certification Scheme (KPCS) since 1st January 2018.
  • It was handed Chairmanship by the European Union during KPCS Plenary 2018, which was held in Brussels, Belgium.

Global Peace Index 2019

  • Global Peace Index is released by the Australian think tank Institute for Economics & Peace.
  • The report covers 99.7 per cent of the world’s population and uses 23 qualitative and quantitative indicators from highly respected sources to compile the index.
  • It ranks countries according to their level of peacefulness based on three thematic domains:
  1. The level of societal safety and security.
  2. The extent of ongoing domestic and international conflict.
  3. The degree of militarization.
  • India’s rank has slipped five places to 141 this year.
  • According to the report, Iceland remains the most peaceful country in the world, a position it has held since 2008.
  • Afghanistan is now the least peaceful country in the world, replacing Syria, which is now the second least peaceful.

PVTG

  • Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Group (PVTG) are more vulnerable among the tribal groups.
  • In India, there are 75 PVTGs out of 705 Scheduled Tribes, spread over 18 states and one Union Territory (A&N Islands).
  • Among the 75 listed PVTG’s the highest number are found in Odisha (13), followed by Andhra Pradesh (12).
  • The Ministry of Tribal Affairs implements the Scheme of “Development of Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Groups (PVTGs)” exclusively for them.
  • The criteria followed for determination of PVTGs are as under:
  1. A pre-agriculture level of technology.
  2. A stagnant or declining population.
  3. Extremely low literacy.
  4. A subsistence level of economy.
  • The Forest Rights Act ensures, that the District Level Committee should play a pro-active role in ensuring that all PTGs receive habitat rights in consultation with the concerned PTGs’ traditional institutions of these groups, after filing claims before the gram sabha.
  • Habitat is defined under the act as, “the area comprising the customary habitat and such other habitats in reserved forests and protected forests of primitive tribal groups and pre-agricultural communities and other forest dwelling Scheduled Tribes.”

Abujh Marias Tribes

  • Abujh Marias are Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Group (PVTG) community living in Abujhmarh forest, Bastar region of Chhattisgarh.
  • Abujh Marias have their own governance structure.
  • Since AbujhMarias is a PVTG community, they are entitled to the habitat rights under the Forest Rights Act (FRA).
  • Recently Chhattisgarh government has initiated the processing of habitat rights for Abujh Marias, a (PVTG).

 

Source: The Hindu, Down to Earth, PIB

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