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Prelim Bits 15-02-2024 | UPSC Daily Current Affairs

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February 15, 2024

Adjournments in Supreme Court (SC)

Supreme Court introduces new ground rules to seek adjournments.

  • Adjournment - In general it refers to a pause or rest during a formal meeting or trial.
  • The new guidelines:
    • Require lawyers to get the consent of the opposing side before circulating a request for an adjournment.
    • Prohibit two consecutive adjournments in a case.
    • Mandate that the party seeking an adjournment will not only have to list a specific reason for making the request but also indicate the total number of adjournments already sought in the case.
  • No letters for adjournment shall be entertained:
    • In cases relating to bail/anticipatory bail
    • Where an exemption from surrendering has been granted
    • Where interim order is operating in favor of the party who seeks adjournment
    • Where suspension of sentence has been sought for
  • In all other cases, the letter of adjournment will be entertained a day before the case list’s publication.
  • When a matter does get adjourned, it will have to be listed before the court within the following four weeks and no request to mention the matter to seek to advance the given date will be permitted.

The circular also introduced a form that will need to be filled out to standardize the information that will need to be shared.

References

  1. Hindustan Times – SC introduces new rules to seek adjournments
  2. The Hindu – No more adjournment letters in after-notice bail cases
  3. Live Law – Adjournment Letters can be circulated only once

Golden Backed Frog & Bonnet Mushroom

Mushroom growing on a frog in India baffles scientists.

  • There are many fungi that grow in a symbiotic relationship with other organisms.
  • There are also some that are parasitic and can cause infections like mucormycosis, more commonly known as black fungus.
  • However, this is the first time that a mushroom has been observed growing on a living organism.

Golden Backed Frog

Characteristics

Description

Name

Indian Golden backed frog of western Ghats

Scientific Name

Indosylvirana aurantiaca

Colour

Golden-yellow back with brownish-grey markings

Habitat

Evergreen forests, swamps, and wetlands

Found in

Western Ghats in India

IUCN status

Least Concern (LC)

  • These frogs prefer to reside near streams, ponds, and other water bodies, where they can lay their eggs and find their food.
  • They are primarily insectivorous and feed on a range of small insects and arthropods such as ants, beetles, and crickets.
  • They are primarily found in the states of Kerala, Karnataka, and Tamil Nadu, with some sightings reported in Goa as well.

Golden Backed frog Western Ghats 2024

Bonnet Mushroom

  • Scientific name - Mycena galericulata
  • A common Mycena found growing in clusters on well-rotted wood with distinctive cross or toothed gills.
  • It can be found year round but is more likely to be found in summer and autumn.
  • The mushrooms have caps with distinct radial grooves, particularly at the margin.
  • The cap's color varies from grayish brown to dark brown and the shape ranges from bell-like to bluntly conical to flatten with an umbo.   

mushrooms types 2024

Types of symbiotic relationship

  • Symbiosis - It is defined as a close, prolonged association between two or more different biological species.
  • This relationship can be symbiotic (mutualistic), where both parties involved benefit from the interaction, and it can be parasitic, where one party benefits while the other is harmed.
  • There are four main symbiotic relationships: mutualism, commensalism, parasitism, and competition.

Mutualism

Commensalism

  • Mutualism describes the ecological interaction between two or more species where each species has a net benefit.
  • Commensalism, in biology, a relationship between two species in which one obtains benefits from the other without harming or benefiting it.

Parasitism

Competition

  • Parasitism, relationship between two species of plants or animals in which one benefits at the expense of the other, sometimes without killing the host organism.
  • Competition occurs when two organisms compete for the same limited resource. The resource may be a prey species, water, or soil nutrients. A competition symbiotic relationship limits the reproductive success of each species, meaning neither benefits.

References

  1. The Indian Express – Mushroom growing on a frog
  2. Times of India – Mushroom sprouting from frog's side
  3. USA Today – Frog with a mushroom growing on its back

World Government Summit

PM Modi's Pitch for Global South at World Governments Summit in Dubai.

  • It is a global, neutral, non-profit organization dedicated to shaping the future of governments.
  • The Summit, explores the agenda of the next generation of governments, focusing on harnessing innovation and technology to solve universal challenges facing humanity.
  • Since its inception in 2013, the Summit has championed the mission of shaping future governments and creating a better future for humanity.
  • Mission - To Inspire and Enable the Next Generation of Governments.
  • Vision - To Become the Global Platform for Shaping Future Governments.
  • The World Government Summit has emerged as a pivotal platform for sharing governance best practices, fostering collaboration, and envisioning innovative solutions for global challenges.

Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi and Shah Rukh Khan are the only Indians invited to address the esteemed World Government Summit (WGS) in Dubai.

References

  1. NDTV – PM Modi's Pitch For Global South at WGS
  2. Deccan Herald – Shah Rukh Khan speaks at WGS
  3. WGS – World Governments Summit (WGS)

Bubonic Plague/Black Death

Bubonic plague of infamous Black Death era strikes Oregon resident.

  • Caused by - The infectious disease is caused by a specific bacteria called Yersinia pestis.
  • This bacteria can affect both humans and animals and is primarily spread by fleas.
  • Although the disease affects people of all groups, half of the cases occur in people aged 12-45.
  • The disease appears in three forms:
    1. The bubonic plague causes painful lymph nodes along with fever, headache, chills and weakness.
    2. The septicemic plague may develop from untreated bubonic plague and possibly bleeding into the skin and other organs.
    3. The pneumonic plague is the only form that can spread between people and is the most fatal.
    4. It can cause respiratory failure and shock after inhaling infectious droplets from people, or through untreated bubonic plague or pneumonic plague.
  • Via droplets in the air, the disease is capable of triggering epidemics.
  • Symptoms -
    1. Sudden high fever and chills
    2. Pain in the arms, legs and abdomen
    3. Headache
    4. Large and swollen lumps in the lymph nodes (buboes) can develop and leak pus
    5. In severe cases, there may be blackened tissue due to gangrene, often affecting the fingers or toes, or unusual bleeding.
  • Treatment - Plague can be successfully treated with antibiotics.

The Black Death was a bubonic plague pandemic occurring in Europe from 1346 to 1353.

References

  1. Down To Earth – Bubonic plague strikes Oregon resident
  2. India Today – Rare human case of bubonic plague in US
  3. NDTV – What is Bubonic Plague and its symptoms?

Community Radio in India

The Ministry of Information and Broadcasting is organising a regional Community Radio Sammelan (South) celebrating 20 years of Community Radio in India.

  • Community Radio is an important third tier in Radio Broadcasting, distinct from Public Service Radio broadcasting and Commercial Radio.
  • Community Radio Stations (CRSs) are low power Radio Stations, which are meant to be set-up and operated by local communities.
  • The Community Radio provides a platform to air local voices among the local community on issues concerning Health, Nutrition, Education, Agriculture etc.
  • Furthermore, since the broadcast is in local languages and dialects, people are able to relate to it instantly.
  • Many CRSs record and preserve local songs for posterity and give local artists a platform to showcase their talent to the community.

February 13 is celebrated as the World Radio Day.

  • New Guidelines - I&B Minister released revised policy guidelines for community radio stations.
  • The guidelines include an increase in advertising rate to ₹74 per 10 seconds and advertising time to 12 minutes per hour.
  • They also provide that 50% of the Advisory and Content Committee members will be women.
  • The revised policy guidelines provide that an eligible organisation operating in multiple districts would be allowed to set up a maximum of six CRS’ in different districts of operation.

References

  1. PIB – Celebrating 20 Years of Community Radio in India
  2. The Hindu – Revised policy guidelines for community radio stations
  3. Business Standard – Centre revises guidelines for community radio
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