Prelim Bits 11-10-2023 | UPSC Daily Current Affairs

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October 11, 2023

Red-rumped Hawklet

A new dragonfly species has been discovered in the verdant landscapes of Wayanad.

  • Scientific nameEpithemis wayanadensis
  • It is named to mark the lush and biodiverse Wayanad plateau in the Western Ghats.
  • Habitat - Shaded streamside marsh near Wayanad’s forested terrain and parts of the Nilgiri Coorg landscapes
  • Features
    • Darker pigmentation
    • A restricted red coloration on the abdomen
    • Absence of the yellow ante humeral stripe
  • Growing conditions – It is profoundly seasonal which is observed in during the month of October in skies.
  • It spends the remainder of the year in the aquatic larval stage.
  • It bore a striking resemblance to Ruby-tailed Hawklet.
  • Significance– A 2% genetic variance indicates the presence of a new species. In this case, an astonishing 12% genetic difference was observed.
  • This marks the 1st instance of an Indian dragonfly being documented with genetic evidence substantiating morphological distinctions.


Ruby-tailed Hawklet (Epithemis mariae)

  • Endemic to the Western Ghats
  • Features - Tiny size where male displays hues of blackish brown and red and the female boasting golden yellow and black hues.
  • Growing condition – Its presence is strictly seasonal, limited to the southwest monsoon period which congregates in small colonies.
  • HabitatMarshes and pools at the base of forested hills.

Odontology is the study of insects, such as dragonflies, that belong to the zoological group Odonata.


The Hindu| New Dragonfly species in Wayanad


Protocol for Management of Malnutrition in Children

Ministry of Women and Child Development (MoWCD) has launched a Standardised National Protocol for Management of Malnourished Children at the Anganwadi level.

  • Drafted by - Ministry of Women & Child Development (MoWCD) with inputs from Ministry of Health & Family Welfare (MoHFW).
  • The protocol is an integral aspect of Mission Poshan 2.0.
  • Need for a protocol - Currently, the treatment of children with SAM is restricted to facility-based approaches.
  • The protocol for the first time addressed the issue at Anganwadi levels.

As per the recent NFHS-5 (2019-21) report, 19.3% of children across the country suffer from SAM and MAM (Moderate acute malnutrition).

1.98% children under 5 years suffer from Severe Acute Malnourishment (SAM) and 4.62% suffer from Moderate Acute Malnourishment (MAM).

  • Objectives - To provide detailed steps for identification and management of malnourished children.
  • It provides 10 step guidelines for malnutrition management like Buddy mother, Appetite testing, Growth monitoring, Nutritional management and Follow-up care.

Buddy Mother

  • Under this, the mother of a healthy baby guides the mother of a malnourished child at an Anganwadi centre every week.
  • It was first used in the state of Assam.

India is moving towards the goal of ‘Malnutrition-free India’ by 2022.


The Hindu| Protocol for Management of Malnutrition in Children.


UN Human Rights Council (UNHRC)

Russia has failed to regain a seat on the U.N. Human Rights Council after a majority of countries in the UN General Assembly voted against it.


Founded in



Geneva, Switzerland

India’s membership

India is a member

  • UNHRC - It is an intergovernmental body within the United Nations system.
  • It is a subsidiary of UN General Assembly (UNGA).
  • It was established by replacing the Commission on Human Rights.
  • Membership47 States who are elected from 193 members of UN General Assembly by absolute majority through secret ballot system.

In order to ensure equitable geographical distribution, its seats are distributed among regional groups of States that is Africa (13), Asia-Pacific (13), Eastern European (6), Latin American and Caribbean (8), and Western European and others (7).

  • Term - 3 years with a maximum of 2 consecutive terms.
  • Meeting - It meets 3 times a year at the United Nations Office at Geneva (UNOG).
  • Functions
    • Universal Periodic Review - This review by UNHRC assesses the human rights situations in all UN Member States.
    • Suspension - The General Assembly, via a 2/3rd majority, can suspend the rights and privileges of any Council member that it decides has persistently committed gross and systematic violations of human rights during its term of membership.
  • Leading entity - Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR) is the leading UN entity on human rights.
  • Not binding - Its resolutions are not legally binding but carry moral authority.
  • Powers - It has no criminal enforcement or sanctioning powers.
  • The council can undertake investigations that help to influence a country’s behaviour.


  • Russia lost the election to UNHRC against Albania and Bulgaria in the Eastern European Region.
  • Russia’s membership was suspended in the wake of its full-scale invasion of Ukraine.


  1. Aljazeera| Election to UNHRC


APEP Mission

NASA’s APEP Mission will send 3 rockets flying into the shadow of the upcoming rare “annular” solar eclipse.

  • APEP - Atmospheric Perturbations around the Eclipse Path Misison.
  • Background - Annular Solar Eclipse is expected to occur on October 14, 2023 in the western hemisphere.
  • An annular solar eclipse occurs when the apparent size of the Moon is slightly less than that of the Sun, which leaves the outer rim of the latter uncovered, giving the appearance of a “ring of fire”.
  • Due to the this, the brightness of the Sun will be diminished to 10% its normal brightness.


  • Aim of APEP - To study how the sudden drop in sunlight affects our upper atmosphere.
  • Scientific measurements – Each rocket holds 4 instruments to measure parameters like ionosphere density, temperature, and changes in electric and magnetic fields.

To know more about layers of atmosphere, click here.


  1. Indian Express| NASA’s rockets into solar eclipse
  2. NASA| APEP Mission


Bharat NCX 2023

Recently, 2nd edition of the National Cyber Security Exercise ‘Bharat NCX 2023’ was organised.

  • It is a hybrid exercise for 12 days with over 300 participants for safeguarding of critical information infrastructure.
  • Organiser – National Security Council Secretariat in partnership with Rashtriya Raksha University (RRU), Defence Ministry.
  • Objectives – To strengthen India’s Cyber posture of India’s Critical Sector.
  • To better understand cyber threats, assess readiness, and develop skills for cyber crisis management and cooperation.
  • ActivitiesTraining sessions, live fire and Strategic exercises.


  • Intrusion detection techniques
  • Malware information sharing platform
  • Vulnerability handling and penetration testing
  • Network protocols and data flows
  • Digital forensics.
  • It will also help develop and test cybersecurity skills, teamwork, planning, communication, critical thinking, and decision-making
  • Beneficiaries – Government sector organizations, public and private agencies.
  • Exhibitions – It will showcase the innovation and resilience of Indian Cyber Security startups and Micro, Small, and Medium-sized Enterprises (MSMEs).

National Security Council Secretariat

  • It is a permanent body under the National Security Council (NSA).
  • It provides technical support to the ‘Council Proper’ of NSA.
  • It is headed by the Director General / National Security Adviser.


PIB| National Cyber Security Exercise

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