Prelim Bits 10-06-2022 | UPSC Daily Current Affairs

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June 10, 2022

Energy Progress Report 2022

  • The Tracking SDG7: The Energy Progress Report,
    1. Provides the most comprehensive look available at the world’s progress towards global energy targets on access to electricity, clean cooking, renewable energy, and energy efficiency and
    2. Gives the international community the latest global dashboard to register progress on the SDG7 targets.
  • The annual report is prepared by the SDG7 Indicator Custodian Agencies,
    1. The International Energy Agency (IEA),
    2. The International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA),
    3. The UN Statistics Division (UNSD) at UN DESA,
    4. The World Bank, and
    5. The World Health Organization (WHO).
  • The SDG 7 tracking report includes the official dashboard of global, regional and national progress on 4 key energy targets:
    1. 7.1: Ensuring universal access to electricity and clean cooking solutions;
    2. 7.2: Substantially increasing the share of renewable energy;
    3. 7.3: Doubling progress on energy efficiency;
    4. 7.A: Increasing international collaboration in support of clean and renewable energy.
  • Findings - This 2022 edition of the Energy Progress Report assesses achievements in the global quest for universal access to affordable, reliable, sustainable, and modern energy by 2030.
  • At today’s rate of progress, the world is still not on track to achieve the SDG 7 goals by 2030.
  • Advances have been impeded, particularly in the most vulnerable countries and those that were already lagging.
  • Some degree of economic recovery has taken place, but there may be slow down as of new challenges from evolving COVID variants and an energy crisis provoked by the Russian invasion of Ukraine.
  • The report considers the consequences of the evolving pandemic, along with results from global modeling, to determine whether current policy ambitions can meet the SDG 7 targets.
  • It also aims to identify the additional actions that may be needed. It also examines the investments required to achieve the goals.
  • It presents scenarios drawn from the International Energy Agency’s (IEA) World Energy Outlook 2021, and the International Renewable Energy Agency’s World Energy Transitions Outlook: 1.5°C Pathway.


  1. https://www.irena.org/publications/2022/Jun/Tracking-SDG-7-2022
  2. https://www.iea.org/reports/tracking-sdg7-the-energy-progress-report-2022
  3. https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/upload.teamup.com/908040/LARFWZedSx6jL28L02hZ_SDG7-20reports-20briefs-20launch-20-Programme-20.pdf

Election of President

The Election Commission has notified the election of India’s 15th President.

  • Under Article 62(1) of the Constitution, an election to fill a vacancy caused by the expiration of the term of office of President shall be completed before the expiration of the term.
  • The President is elected not directly by the people but by members of electoral college consisting of:
    1. The elected members of both the Houses of Parliament;
    2. The elected members of the legislative assemblies of the states; and
    3. The elected members of the legislative assemblies of the Union Territories of Delhi and Puducherry.
  • This Electoral College doesn’t consist of nominated members of Rajya Sabha, Lok Sabha and the Assemblies, and members of state Legislative Councils.
  • Value of Vote - The votes are weighted, their value determined by the population of each state as per Census 1971.
  • The value of each MLA’s vote varies from a high of 208 in Uttar Pradesh to a low of 7 in Sikkim.
  • This means that UP’s 403 MLAs contribute 208 × 403 = 83,824 votes to the electoral pool, while Sikkim’s 32 MLAs contribute 32 × 7 = 224 votes.
  • The weighted votes from all the Assemblies add up to 5.43 lakh.
  • The process demands that all the 776 MPs should contribute the same total of votes as the MLAs.
  • Thus, the value of each MP’s vote is 5.43 lakh divided by 776, rounded off to 700. The combined electoral pool from the Assemblies and Parliament adds up to 10.86 lakh.


  • 1952 and 1957: In both the first and the second election, Rajendra Prasad won without a no-contest.
  • 1969: This election, necessitated by the sudden passing of President Hussain, was the most controversial of them all.
  • Under Article 65(1) of the Constitution, Vice-President V V Giri assumed office as acting President, but resigned in 1969 as Vice President and also as acting President.
  • There were tensions within the Congress between Prime Minister Indira Gandhi and a group of veterans known as the Syndicate.
  • These tensions came to a head when the party officially fielded Neelam Sanjeeva Reddy while Gandhi threw her weight behind Giri, contesting as an independent.


  1. https://indianexpress.com/article/explained/explained-how-the-president-is-elected-7961048/
  2. https://theprint.in/india/elections-to-choose-indias-next-president-will-be-on-18-july-results-21-july/989673/

Aegean Sea

Turkish President warned Greece - which has been building a military presence in violation of treaties that guarantee the unarmed status of the Aegean islands - to demilitarise islands in the Aegean Sea.

Greece and Turkey are NATO allies, but they have a history of disputes over a range of issues, including mineral exploration in the eastern Mediterranean and rival claims in the Aegean Sea.

  • The ancient name of the Aegean Sea, Archipelago, was later applied to the islands it contains and is now used to refer to any island group.
  • The Aegean Sea, an arm of the Mediterranean Sea, is located between the Greek peninsula on the west and Asia Minor on the east.
  • It is located between the southern Balkan and the Anatolian peninsulas, between the mainlands of Greece and Turkey, respectively.
  • It is connected through the straits of the Dardanelles, the Sea of Marmara, and the Bosporus to the Black Sea.
  • It also has a good connection to the Ionian Sea to the west, through the strait lying between the Peloponnese peninsula of Greece and Crete.
  • The island of Crete can be taken as marking its boundary on the south.
  • Significance - The Aegean Sea is the cradle of the two great early civilizations, those of Crete and Greece, from which much of modern Western culture is derived.


  1. https://www.thehindu.com/todays-paper/tp-international/demilitarise-aegean-islands-erdogan/article65512568.ece 
  2. https://www.britannica.com/place/Aegean-Sea
  3. https://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Aegean_Sea


  • Oarfish (Regalecus glesne) is a long, pelagic lampriform fish of the Family Regalecidae (Order Lampridiformes).
  • This reclusive deep-sea swimmer is found throughout the tropics and subtropics in rather deep water.
  • It is also called ribbon fish due to their long, skinny bodies or rooster fish because of their frilly, red dorsal crests.
  • Seldom seen at the surface, it is credited as the “sea serpent” of some reported sightings.
  • Known as the “Messenger from the Sea God’s Palace,” it’s commonly believed the animal is a harbinger of earthquakes and tsunamis.


  1. https://www.thehindu.com/life-and-style/goodbye-dolphin-thoothukudi-fishermen-reconunt-their-rescue-mission/article6550187ece
  2. https://www.britannica.com/animal/oarfish
  3. https://allthatsinteresting.com/oarfish


The Defence Acquisition Council (DAC) has approved the capital acquisition of eight next generation corvettes (NGCs) for the Indian Navy.

  • A Corvette is the smallest class of naval ships and it falls below the warship class of a frigate.
  • These are highly agile ships and are categorised as missile boats, anti-submarine ships, coastal patrol crafts and fast attack naval vessels.
  • Corvettes date back to the 18th and the 19th century when they were extensively used in the naval warfare duels that were fought at high seas.
  • However, these were powered by sails and masts, and disappeared for a while when steam powered naval ships made their appearance.
  • Though the Royal Navy (UK) started using small warships in the 1650s, the first reference to a corvette warship was in the 1670s with the French Navy.
  • During World War II, the term Corvette was used to describe vessels which had anti-submarine roles assigned to them.
  • Modern Corvettes can go up to 2,000 tons in displacement which helps in keeping them agile.
  • Corvettes in the Indian Navy - The Indian Navy has the Kamorta Class Corvettes, which are also known as Project 28.
  • The four Kamorta Class Corvettes that the Indian Navy possesses are named INS Kamorta, INS Kadmatt, INS Kiltan and INS Kavaratti.
  • These ships have an anti-submarine role and are manufactured at Garden Reach Shipbuilders and Engineers in Kolkata.
  • In-service Kamorta Class Corvettes have a high degree of indigenous equipment being used on the platform like,
    1. Bharat Electronic Limited (BEL) manufactured ‘Shikari’ sensor and processing system,
    2. BEL manufactured Bomber and Electronic Warfare Suits ‘Ajanta’,
    3. ‘Sanket’ electronic warfare systems and
    4. ‘Kavach’ decoy launchers.
  • New capabilities - Next-generation Corvettes will be manufactured for various roles like surveillance missions, escorting, surface action group operations, search and attack and coastal defence.
  • These roles will be in addition to the anti-submarine roles being already performed by the existing Corvettes in the Navy.
  • These NGCs will be constructed based on new in-house design of the Indian Navy using latest technology of ship buildings.
  • It would contribute to further the government’s initiative of Security and Growth for all in the region (SAGAR).


  1. https://indianexpress.com/article/explained/explained-next-generation-corvettes-combat-edge-navy-7959576/
  2. https://www.navalnews.com/naval-news/2022/06/indian-government-turns-on-green-light-for-ngc-next-gen-corvette/
  3. https://www.navalnews.com/naval-news/2022/06/indian-government-turns-on-green-light-for-ngc-next-gen-corvette/
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