Prelim Bits 06-01-2023| UPSC Daily Current Affairs

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January 06, 2023

Water Vision @2047

The Ministry of Jal Shakti is organizing the 1st All India Annual State Ministers Conference on Water with the theme ‘Water Vision@2047’ in Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh.

  • Water Vision @2047 is a 2-days Conference of All India State Ministers.
  • State Ministers of Water Resources, Public Health Engineering Department (PHED) and Irrigation from all States/ UTs of the country participated.

Water Vision @2047 is a part of Prime Minister’s India@2047 plan.

  • Objective - To gather inputs for the India@2047 and 5P vision from the different water stakeholders of the states.
  • To improve engagement and partnership with the states and to share the initiatives and schemes of the Ministry of Jal Shakti.
  • The Conference had 5 thematic sessions viz.
    1. Water Security in Water Deficit, Water Surplus and Hilly Regions;
    2. Water Use Efficiency including Reuse of Waste Water/ Grey Water;
    3. Water Governance;
    4. Climate Change Resilient Water Infrastructure, and
    5. Water Quality.

The Prime Minister has proclaimed the ‘5P’ mantra in the India@2047 plan, which includes Political will, Public financing, Partnerships, Public Participation and Persuasion for sustainability.

Conference outcomes

  • Launched the National Framework on Reuse of Treated Waste Water
  • Launched National Framework for Sedimentation Management
  • Best practices under Jal Shakti Abhiyan: Catch the Rain
  • Inaugurated a sub-portal of ‘Jal Itihas’ under the WRIS portal as part of Azadi Ka Amrit Mahotsav


  1. PIB - All India Annual States' Ministers Conference
  2. Live Mint - Water Vision@2047
  3. Times of India -  ‘Water Vision 2047’ as part of Amrit Yatra

Broadcasting Infrastructure and Network Development

The Cabinet Committee approved the ‘Broadcasting Infrastructure and Network Development (BIND)’ scheme for infrastructural development of Prasar Bharati.

  • The Ministry of Information and Broadcasting implements the Central Sector Scheme BIND with an outlay of Rs.2,539.61 crore up to 2025-26.
  • It paves the way for upgrade and expansion of the public service broadcasting infrastructure across the country.
  • The BIND scheme provides financial support to Prasar Bharati for expenses related to the below functions.
  • The BIND scheme will enable the public broadcaster to
    1. Widen its reach including in the LWE, border and strategic areas
    2. To provide high quality content for both domestic and international viewers.
    3. Digital upgradation of DD and AIR Studios to make them HD.
    4. Increase coverage of AIR FM transmitters in the country
  • The Scheme also envisages free distribution of over 8 lakh DD Free Dish STBs to people living in remote, tribal, LWE and border areas.
Prasar Bharati
  • Prasar Bharati i.e. All India Radio (AIR) and Doordarshan (DD) is the public broadcaster of the country.
  • It is the most important vehicle of information, education, entertainment and engagement for the people especially in the remote areas of the country through Doordarshan and All India Radio.
  • At present, Doordarshan operates 36 TV channels including 28 regional channels and All India Radio operates more than 500 broadcasting centres.


  1. PIB -Cabinet Committee approves Central Sector BIND Scheme
  2. The Hindu - Cabinet panel clears scheme to upgrade Prasar Bharati
  3. Vikaspedia - Ministry of Information & Broadcasting

Ambit of Article 19

The Supreme Court said that the fundamental rights under Article 19 & 21 of the Constitution can be enforced against private individuals & entities.

Article 19 of the Constitution Of India

Protection of certain rights regarding freedom of speech etc.,

  1. All citizens shall have the right
    1.    to freedom of speech and expression;
  2. Nothing in sub clause (a) of clause (1) shall affect the operation of any existing law, or prevent the State from making any law, in so far as such law imposes reasonable restrictions on the exercise of the right conferred by the said sub clause in the interests of the sovereignty and integrity of India, the security of the State, friendly relations with foreign States, public order, decency or morality or in relation to contempt of court, defamation or incitement to an offence
  • Article 19 - It guarantees freedom of speech and expression is a right generally invoked against the state.
  • The right of free speech and expression guaranteed under the Article 19(1)(a) cannot be curbed by any additional grounds other than those already laid down in Article 19(2).
  • New Approach - The ruling extended the ambit of the fundamental rights with a horizontal approach.
  • A vertical application of rights would mean it can be enforced only against the state while a horizontal approach would mean it is enforceable against other citizens.
  • SC Ruling - A fundamental right under Article 19/21 can be enforced even against persons other than the State or its instrumentalities.
  • The court, extending free speech against private citizens, opens up a range of possibilities in Constitutional law.
  • Example - A horizontal application of the right to life would enable a citizen to bring a case against a private entity for causing pollution, which would be a violation of the right to a clean environment.


  1. Indian Express - Supreme Court expands Article 19 ambit
  2. Live Law - Article 19 & 21 Rights
  3. The Wire - Fundamental Rights Under Article 19, 21

Gangasagar Mela

West Bengal Chief Minister demanded a 'national status' for the annual 'Gangasagar Mela', which takes place on the island of Gangasagar.

  • Gangasagar is an island in the Ganges delta located on the continental shelf of the Bay of Bengal.
  • Gangasagar Island is located in 24 South Parganas in West Bengal.
  • Every year during Gangasagar Mela, devotees from all over the country gather during Makar Sankranti.
  • The devotees take a sacred dip at the confluence of the Ganga and the Bay of Bengal.
  • The famous pilgrim spot of Samkhya philosophy, Kapil Muni temple is located here.
  • Gangasagar Mela is said to be India's second largest pilgrimage gathering after the Kumbh Mela.
  • Gangasagar Mela is the world's second-largest human congregation after Kumbh Mela.
  • Since 2021, e-snan (virtual bathing) and online darshan of the Ganga Sagarmela are arranged.

sagar island


  1. Indian Express - Demand of national status for Gangasagar Mela
  2. Hindustan Times - What is ‘Gangasagar Mela’?
  3. Gangasagar Mela


Scientists have discovered a species that can eat huge numbers of infectious viruses that share their aquatic habitat.

  • Virovores are organism that eat and survive on viruses.
  • A species of Halteria can eat huge numbers of infectious chloroviruses that share their aquatic habitat.
  • Halteria is a microscopic ciliate that lives in freshwater worldwide.

Ciliates are a single-celled organism with minuscule hairs.

  • These Chloroviruses are made up of nucleic acids, a lot of nitrogen, and phosphorous.
  • Halteria not just eat viruses but they thrive wholly on a virus-only diet.


  1. Down To Earth - A hungry organism that thrives on Virus
  2. Hindustan Times - What is ‘Virovore’?
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