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Prelim Bits 04-11-2022 | UPSC Daily Current Affairs

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November 04, 2022

National Natural Farming Mission Portal

Union Agriculture Minister launched the National Natural Farming Mission portal at Krishi Bhawan, New Delhi.

  • The National Mission on Natural Farming (NMNF) portal was launched at the first steering committee meeting of National Natural Farming Mission.
  • The National Natural Farming Mission portal was developed by the Union Ministry of Agriculture and Farmers Welfare.
  • The portal will help in promoting natural farming in the country and for the benefit of the farming community.

Natural Farming is a chemical free farming system based on livestock and locally available resources and rooted in Indian tradition.

National Mission on Natural Farming

  • The Bhartiya Prakratik Krishi Paddhati (BPKP) is being up-scaled as National Mission on Natural Farming (NMNF) for implementation all across the country.
  • BPKP is a sub-scheme of Paramparagat Krishi Vikas Yojna (PKVY) since 2019-20 for promoting natural farming.
  • National Steering Committee (NSC) under the Chairmanship of the Union Agriculture Minister, is the policy making body of the mission.
  • Mission Objectives
  1. To promote alternative system of farming and thereby increasing income of farmers.
  2. To popularize integrated agriculture-animal husbandry models.
  3. To collect, validate and document Natural Farming practices and to encourage participatory research with farmers.
  4. To undertake activities for awareness creation, capacity building, promotion and demonstration of Natural Farming.
  5. To create standards, certification procedure and branding for Natural Farming products.


  1. PIB - Union Agriculture Minister Shri Narendra Singh Tomar chairs steering committee meeting of National Natural Farming Mission
  2. Business Standard - Agriculture minister launches portal on national mission on natural farming
  3. National Mission On Natural Farming Management And Knowledge Portal

Performance Grading Index

Ministry of Education releases report on Performance Grading Index for States and Union Territories for the year 2020-21.

Indian Education System is one of the largest in the world with about 14.9 lakh schools, 95 lakh teachers, and nearly 26.5 crore students.

  • Performance Grading Index (PGI) is a unique index for evidence based comprehensive analysis of school education system across State/UTs.
  • The index measures the performance of states and union territories on a uniform scale to analyse the transformational change in the field of school education.
  • Objective of PGI - To promote evidence-based policy making and highlight course correction to ensure quality education for all.
  • The PGI helps States and UTs to pinpoint the gaps and prioritize areas for intervention accordingly.
  • The structure of PGI

1000 points

Divided into ten grades.


Highest Grade

Level 1

Scores above



Lowest grade Level 10

Scores below




70 Indicators




Learning Outcomes (LO) & Quality

Access (A)

Infrastructure& Facilities (IF)

Equity (E)

Governance Management

Governance Process (GP).

PGI 2020-21 Highlights

  • A total of 7 States and UTs, Viz., Kerala, Punjab, Chandigarh, Maharashtra, Gujarat, Rajasthan, and Andhra Pradesh have attained Level II (score 901-950) in 2020-21.
  • Maharashtra, Punjab and Kerala have been ranked first in this year’s PGI report.
  • Gujarat, Rajasthan and Andhra Pradesh are the new entrants to highest achieved level.


  1. PIB - Ministry of Education releases report on Performance Grading Index for States/UTs for the year 2020-21
  2. The Indian Express - Despite pandemic impact, Maharashtra tops school education performance index
  3. Ministry of Education – UDISE+ - Performance Grading Index

Cordy Gold Nanoparticles

A collaborative research on a fungus-powered biosynthesised Nano gold particles has received an international patent from Germany.

  • Cordy gold nanoparticles (Cor-AuNPs) is the outcome of a collaborative experiment by scientists from four Indian institutions.
  • These nanoparticles could make drug delivery in the human body faster and surer.
  • Cor-AuNP is derived from the synthesis of the extracts of Cordyceps militaris and gold salts.

Cordyceps militaris is a parasitic fungi that forms a small, 3- or 4-centimetre (about 1.3-inch) mushroom like fruiting structure with a bright orange head, or cap.

Gold salts are ionic chemical compounds of gold generally used in medicine.


Cordyceps militaris

  • Cordyceps militaris are called super mushroom because of its tremendous medicinal properties.
  • Cordyceps are used in traditional medicine for centuries for its anti- aging an anti-inflammatory properties.
  • It adds bioactive components to the synthesis of gold nanoparticles for better penetration.
  • Biosynthesised Nano gold particles indicate a new application of nanoparticles in the development of therapeutic drugs which can be delivered as ointments, tablets, capsules, and in other forms.


  1. The Hindu - A gold-mushroom combo to ease drug delivery
  2. The Sentinel - German Patent Office recognizes research on Cordycep mushroom

Mauna Loa

The largest active volcano in the world, ‘Mauna Loa’ in Hawaii shows indications that it could erupt.

  • Mauna Loa is one of five volcanoes that together make up the Big Island, the southernmost island of Hawaiian archipelago.
  • Mauna Loa is the largest volcano and makes up about half of the island’s land mass.
  • Mauna Loa volcano last erupted 38 years ago in 1984.

Nature of Mauna Loa Volcano

  • Hawaii’s volcanoes are called shield volcanoes because successive lava flows over hundreds of thousands of years build broad mountains that resemble the shape of a warrior’s shield.
  • Hawaii volcanoes like Mauna Loa non-explosive volcanoes and tend not to have explosion eruptions.
  • Mauna Loa has a much larger magma reservoir than Kilauea, leading to larger lava flows when an eruption occurs.
  • Their magma is hotter, drier and more fluid.

Volcanoes in Big Island

  • Mauna Loa - Mauna Loa Observatory (MLO) is located on the north flank of this volcano.
  • Mauna Kea - The tallest volcano in Hawaii.
  • Kilauea volcano - It is currently erupting from its summit crater and is located south of Mauna Loa.
  • Hualalai volcano
  • Kohala volcano



  1. The Indian Express - Where Mauna Loa, Hawaii’s biggest volcano, will erupt from
  2. CNN - Dozens of earthquakes detected as Hawaii's Mauna Loa, world's largest active volcano, remains in 'state of heightened unrest'

Rising Sun Water Festival 2022

The Meghalaya Chief Minister inaugurated the three-days-long ‘Rising Sun Water Fest 2022’ at Umiam Sports Complex.

Members of the Garo tribal community performed Wangala dance on the inaugural of the event.

  • The Rising Sun Water Fest-2022 is organised on the banks of Umiam Lake in Meghalaya.
  • The event was organised by the Eastern Command Aquatics Node as a part of Khelo India programme.
  • The Indian Army and the government of Meghalaya is organizing the rowing and sailing event for the first time.
  • The sailing and rowing event witnessed participation from elite pan India clubs.waterfest


  • Wangala dance is performed by males and females to the rhythmic beat of drums and gongs and blowing of horns by the males.
  • It is traditionally performed during Wangala festival by Garo tribes.
  • Wangala festival (also known as 100 drums festival) is a celebration of thanksgiving after harvest.
  • Garos are Sino-Tibetan ethnic tribe who live in Garo hills in Meghalaya.


  1. The Hindu – Festive Beats
  2. North East Today - Meghalaya CM Inaugurates ‘Rising Sun Water Fest 2022’
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