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Prelim Bits 03-12-2022 | UPSC Daily Current Affairs

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December 03, 2022

Boars in Mythology

The wild boar of Bhuta Kola has much significance in mythology.

  • The pig was amongst the earliest animals to be domesticated across the world.
  • The domesticated pig descended from the wild boar. Symbolically, they are a reminder of wild nature and cultivated culture.
  • Boars have different significance in different traditions and mythology.
  • Chinese - The pig is the symbol of abundance and joy, present in every feast.
  • Tantrik traditions - The sow-goddess, Varahi, is a feared symbol of great fertility and power.
  • Varaha - Vishnu as the wild boar is depicted carrying the earth-goddess, Bhoodevi, on his snout.
  • Vishnu Dharma-shastra - Dharma-shastra literature was rewritten with a theistic Puranic overtone, and considered to be presented through the mouth of Vishnu-Varaha.
  • The code is presented by Varaha, to Bhoodevi and worried about chaos and anarchy in the world, resulting from the rise of monastic orders and the arrival of foreign kings.
  • Shatapatha Brahamana – It is a commentary on the Sukla (white) Yajurveda.
  • In this the boar is one of the forms of Prajapati.

Bhuta Kola

  • The Bhuta Kola (play of the spirits) is a ritualistic tradition of Tulu Nadu, in south Karnataka.
  • During these rituals the energy of the Panjurli, a guardian god and probably an ancestral spirit, manifests through the body of the performer.

Panjurli is the divine spirit of a male wild boar worshipped as a part of Bhuta Kola.

  • Panjurli, Bobbarya, Pilipoota, Kalkuda, Kalburti, Pilichamundi, Koti Chennaya are some of the popular gods (bhutas) worshipped as part of Bhuta Kola.
  • Different bhutas are born from different beliefs and historical stories and bhutas can also be animals
    1. Pilichamudi bhuta - a tiger
    2. Malaraya - a boar

panjiruli

References

  1. The Hindu - The boar of  Kantara

Sukapha Diwas

Asom Divas or Assam Day was celebrated at Sukapha Bhavan in Tezpur.

  • Asom Divas or Assam Day is celebrated on December 2 every year.
  • It is celebrated to commemorate the arrival of the first king of Ahom kingdom Sukapha in Assam.
  • The day is also known as Sukapha Divas in honour of the founder of the Ahom kingdom that existed for nearly 600 years.
  • Asom Divas is celebrated in a grand manner by singing and narrating praises of Sukapha along with the performance of various traditional forms of dances and songs.

Swargadeo Chaolung Sukapha

  • Swargadeo Chaolung Sukapha established the Ahom kingdom in the 13th century.
  • Sukapha’s unique ability to create unity and brotherhood among people of various tribes has earned him the honorary title of Chaolung.
  • He played a unique role in laying the foundation of Greater Assam (Bor Asom).
  • He unified various ethnic groups of Assam by treating them as equals.
  • Swargadeo Chaolung Sukapha is hailed as ‘Architect of Assam’.
  • The Ahom rule is hailed as golden rule in the history of Assam.
  • Ahoms are also credited for keeping the Mughal rulers away.

References

  1. PIB - Delhi celebrates Assam Day
  2. Hindustan Times - Asom Diwas respects 'the architect of Assam'
  3. The Sentinel - Asom Divas observed in Tezpur

Worm Holes

Caltech scientists simulated a ‘baby wormhole’ in a supercomputer.

  • Scientists have created a theoretical wormhole using supercomputers known as a “baby wormhole”, which will allow scientists to study the relationship between quantum physics and wormhole.
  • The quantum system used exhibits key properties of a gravitational wormhole.
  • A wormhole is a rupture in space and time and it is considered a bridge between two remote regions in the universe.
  • The speculative structure in space-time, looks like a tunnel with two ends and at separate points.
  • This will have a different space-time continuum when compared to the space-time of our universe.
  • Scientists refer to them as Einstein–Rosen bridges after the two physicists who described them – Albert Einstein and Nathan Rosen.
  • The term ‘wormhole’ was coined by physicist John Wheeler in the 1950s.
  • These wormholes are consistent with Einstein’s theory of general relativity, which focuses on gravity, one of the fundamental forces in the universe.

wormhole

Black hole

Wormhole

Black holes are extraordinarily dense celestial objects with gravity so powerful that not even light can escape.

Wormhole is a tunnel that connects two black holes at different locations in space-time.

References

  1. Indian Express - Scientists build ‘baby’ wormhole
  2. Science Direct – Baby Wormhole built Teleported Information

Naming 21 Andaman & Nicobar Islands

Uninhabited islands of Andaman and Nicobar archipelago were christened with names of Param Vir Chakra heroes.

  • The government has named 21 uninhabited islands in the union territory of Andaman & Nicobar after recipients of Param Vir Chakra.
  • Out of the 21 islands, 16 are located in North and Middle Andaman district, while five islands are in South Andaman.
  • The first uninhabited island was named after Major Somnath Sharma as ‘Somnath Dweep’.
  • Major Somnath Sharma, was the first to receive the honorary Param Vir Chakra award.
  • Sharma lost his life in the line of duty while handling Pakistani infiltrators during the Battle of Badgam.
  • Andamans and the freedom fighters - The Andamans in general and the Cellular Jail in particular played a prominent part in the history of our freedom struggle.
  • People who took part in various anti-British movements such as the 1857 revolt, the Wahabi Movement, and the Burmese Rebellion were deported to the Andamans.
  • Great stalwarts of the freedom struggle were confined in the solitary cells of the Cellular Jail.

Param Vir Chakra

  • Param Vir Chakra means ‘Wheel of the Ultimate Brave’.
  • The highest honour given to officers and other personnel of the military throughout India for their bravery during times of war in the presence of the enemy.
  • The honour of Param Vir Chakra is equivalent to the Medal of Honour in the United States and the Victorian cross of the United Kingdom.
  • The medal has been awarded 21 times of which 14 were posthumous and 16 originated from actions in Indo-Pakistani disputes.
  • The Param Vir Chakra was designed by Savitribai Khanolkar (née Eve Yvonne Maday de Maros).

References

  1. The Hindu - Andaman and Nicobar islands named after soldiers
  2. PTI - Andaman and Nicobar Islands decorated after soldiers
  3. Post Toast - Savitribai Khanolkar – Designer of Param Veer Chakra

Kanger Valley National Park

Chhattisgarh’s first-ever inter-state bird survey was conducted in the Kanger Valley National Park.

  • Bird watchers and forest department officials counted 200 types of birds in Chhattisgarh’s first-ever inter-state bird survey.
  • The survey was organised by the forest department of Chhattisgarh, in collaboration with Bird Count India.
  • The trail survey methodology with e-bird application was used in the process.
  • The documented birds include 9 species of owls, 10 birds of prey, 11 species of woodpeckers.

e-bird is an online database of bird observations by eBird India, a collaborative project managed by Bird Count India.

  • Kanger Ghati National Park derived its name from the Kanger River, which flows in its length.
  • The national Park is located in the Bastar district of Chhattisgarh.
  • The landscape of Kanger Valley can potentially host species found in the Himalayas, the Northeast, the Eastern and Western Ghats.
  • Forest - mixed humid deciduous type of forest.
  • Fauna - Malabar Giant Squirrel, Spotted Deer, Rhesus Macaque, Grey Langur, scat of Sloth Bear and Indian Wolf.
  • Other Features - It is known for the underground limestone caves and stalagmites and stalactites - Kutumbasar, Kailash and Dandak.
  • Tirathgarh waterfall and Kanger dhara waterfall are located inside the National Park.

The Kanger Valley National Park is also home to a population of Chhattisgarh’s state bird, the Bastar hill myna (Gruncula dhariosoa).

References

  1. Down To Earth -  Bird survey conducted in the Kanger Valley NP
  2. Outlook India - Bird Survey In Kanger Valley National Park
  3. Times of India - Bird survey in Kanger valley
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