Prelim Bits 03-07-2023 | UPSC Daily Current Affairs

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July 03, 2023

Santal rebellion (Hul Revolt) 1855-56

Every year, the state of Jharkhand celebrates June 30 as ‘Hul Diwas’, marking the beginning of the Santal rebellion.


  • The Santal people had migrated from the Birbhum and Manbhum regions (present-day Bengal) to Jharkhand, starting around the late 18th century.
  • The 1770 famine in Bengal caused the Santals to begin moving and soon, the British turned to them for help.
  • With the enactment of the Permanent Settlement Act of 1790, the East India Company brought a large area under settled agriculture.
  • The area of Damin-i-Koh which is a forest to be settled by the Santals affected by the permanent settlement and the tribals are compelled to practice settled agriculture.

At present the Santal community is the 3rd largest tribal community in India, spread across Jharkhand-Bihar, Odisha and West Bengal.

Santals Rebellion

  • Year - 1855 (two years before the uprising of 1857).
  • Leaders - Sidhu, Kanhu, Chand and Bhairav.
  • Participants - As many as 32 caste and communities participated.
  • Region - Damin-i-Koh, the present-day Jharkhand around the Rajmahal Hills. (Damin-i-Koh - Skirts of the hills)
  • Main Centre - Bhognadih village in Sahebganj district of Jharkhand.
  • Method - Guerilla warfare
  • Opposed by - Merchants, Mahajans, Zamindars and Capitalist agriculture.


The Indian Express | Hul Diwas

White-rumped Vulture

Despite protective measures, the future of white-rumped vulture remains extremely perilous in the Sigur plateau in the Nilgiris.

White-rumped Vulture


  • Scientific name - Gyps bengalensis.
  • Conservation Status
    • IUCN Red List Status - Critically Endangered.
    • CITES – Appendix II
  • Habitat – Forest, Savannah, shrub land and grassland
  • Spread – Indian Sub-continent and southeast Asia
  • Distribution in India – Found throughout India.
  • They occur in temperate areas, mostly in plains and occasionally in hilly regions.
  • Vultures in IndiaThreats to Vultures

Sigur plateau

  • Sigur plateau, Nilgiris is the last southernmost viable breeding population for the White-rumped vulture in India.
  • Reasons for the population decline
    • Vultures died after consuming organophosphorus (insecticides) and urea used to poison carnivores.
    • Anthropogenic pressures, such as cattle-grazing and poorly designed check-dams, have depleted the habitats of vultures.
  • Sigur Plateau - It is one of the most vital wildlife corridors linking the western and eastern ghats.
  • It is bounded to the northwest by the Bandipur National Park, to the east by the Sathyamangalam Wildlife Sanctuary, and to the west by the Wayanad Wildlife Sanctuary.
  • It is a part of the World Network of Biosphere Reserves of UNESCO.
  • The corridor is critical for preserving the genetic diversity of the region's tigers and elephants.
  • The Sigur plateau is home to the Irular community tribals.


The Hindu | White-rumped vulture faces threat in Nilgris’ Sigur plateau

National Sickle Cell Anaemia Elimination Mission

Recently, Prime Minister launches the National Sickle Cell Anaemia Elimination Mission.

  • Sickle Cell Anaemia (SCA) is a collection of inherited red blood cell conditions that have an impact on haemoglobin, which transports oxygen throughout the body.
  • To know more - Sickle cell Anaemia

National Sickle Cell Anaemia Elimination Mission

  • Aim
    • To eliminate Sickle Cell Anaemia by 2047
    • To improve the care and prospects of all sickle cell disease patients
  • Objectives
    • Provision of affordable and accessible care to all SCD patients
    • To ensure quality of care for SCD patients
    • To reduce the prevalence of SCD
  • Ministry - It is a joint mission of Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, and the Ministry of Tribal Affairs and state governments.
  • It focuses on addressing the significant health challenges posed by sickle cell disease, particularly among tribal populations of the country.
  • It is now implemented in 17 high-focus states across the country.
  • The program is executed as part of the National Health Mission (NHM) through the platform of Rashtriya Bal Swasthya Karyakram (RBSK) and Pradhan Mantri Surakshit Matritva Abhiyan (PMSMA).
  • Strategy - The strategy emphasizes on 3 pillars:
  • Health promotion - Awareness generation & pre-marital genetic counselling
  • Prevention - Universal screening and early detection
  • Holistic Management & continuum of care
    • Management of persons with sickle cell disease at primary, secondary and tertiary health care levels; treatment facilities at tertiary health care facilities
    • Patient support system
    • Community adoption
  • Beneficiaries - Mission mode to cover 0 to 18 years of age and shall incrementally include the entire population up to 40 years as a part of National Health Mission.
  • The program envisages Sickle Cell Genetic Status Cards to beneficiaries.

World Sickle Cell Day observed each year on June 19.


PIB | National Sickle Cell Anaemia Elimination Mission

Bonalu Festival

The annual bonalu festival held recently in the Golconda fort in Hyderabad.

  • It is an annual festival celebrated in the twin Cities Hyderabad and Secunderabad and other parts of Telangana state, India.
  • It is dedicated to the worship of the Goddess Mahakali.
  • The word “Bonalu” is derived from the Telugu word “Bhojanalu,” which means “feast” or “meal.”
  • Bonalu involves worship of Kali in her various forms such Mysamma, Pochamma, Yellamma, Dokkalamma, Pedamma, Poleramma, Ankalamma, Maremma, Nookalamma etc.
  • Bonalu starts with the Aahsda month according to the Hindu calendar that falls in July/August.
  • Other temples such as Akkanna Madanna temple in Haribowli, Muthyalamma temple in Shah Ali Banda are the popular venues where Bonalu is celebrated.


The Hindu | Golconda Fort reverberates with Bonalu festival

Pangong Tso Lake

China is rushing to complete a bridge across the Pangong Tso, connecting the north and south banks simultaneously India is also building a black-topped road on its side on the north bank.

  • Pangong Tso is a high altitude saltwater lake in Ladakh.
  • It is the world’s highest saltwater lake.
  • Pangong Lake, derives its name from the Tibetan word, “Pangong Tso”, which means “high grassland lake”.
  • Formerly, Pangong Tso had an outlet to the Shyok River, a tributary of the Indus River, but it was closed off by natural damming.
  • Two streams feed the lake from the Indian side, forming marshes and wetlands at the edges.
  • Distribution - 1/3rd of the lake is lying in India & the other 2/3rd is in China.
  • Pangong Lake is a disputed territory between India and china where the Line of Actual Control passes through the lake.
  • Pangong has a unique feature, it acts like a chameleon and changes its color from blue to green to even grey at times.
  • Though it is a saline water lake, it freezes completely during winters.
  • The lake is in the process of being identified as a wetland of international importance under the Ramsar Convention.
  • After the convention, it will be a first trans-boundary wetland in South Asia.


The Hindu | India, China ramp up infra on north bank of Pangong Tso lake

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