Pradhan Mantri Kaushal Vikas Yojana

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December 20, 2023

Why in news?

Recently the Lok Sabha standing committee has found that the Pradhan Mantri Kaushal Vikas Yojana (PMKVY) has trained 13.7 million candidates, but only 18% of them have secured a job.

Pradhan Mantri Kaushal Vikas Yojana



Launch year



Ministry of Skill Development and Entrepreneurship


To provide industry-relevant training and certification to Indian youth.

Implemented by

National Skill Development Corporation (NSDC)




  • To encourage and promote skill development in the country by providing free short duration skill training.
  • To boost employability of youth corresponding to the industrial demand.


  • It intended to cover 10 million youth during the period 2016 -2020.
  • Skill training would be done based on the National Skill Qualification Framework (NSQF) and indstry led standards.


  • It would make skill development more demand-driven and decentralised in its approach, with focus on digital technology and Industry 4.0 skills.
  • It will be more trainer centric and learner centric.


  • It is launched to skill lakhs of youth in new age courses for Industry 4.0 like coding, AI, robotics, mechatronics, IOT, 3D printing, drones, and soft skills.within the next 3 years.
  • Skill India Digital will form the backbone for implementation of PMKVY 4.0 by providing end to end digitalization of training lifecycle


PMKVY timeline

What are the challenges in implementation of PMKVY?

  • Underutilised funds- As per government’s data, the programme’s fund utilisation was poor in 2016-17, with only 56% of the allocated funds being used
  • Limited coverage- Currently only around 2.4% of India’s strong workforce has received formal vocational education or training.
  • Infrastructural deficit- The scheme relies on the training centres set up by the NSDC and its partner trainers, many of them lack adequate infrastructure, equipment, and trainers to provide quality and practical training.
  • Incompatible- The current skill development programmes do not match the actual regional demand for skills, creating a mismatch between the training and the market requirements.
  • Poor productivity- Disconnect with the industry has led to a gap between the skills imparted and the skills needed, resulting in low employability and productivity
  • Dropouts- It has a high dropout rate, with 20% of the enrolled candidates leaving the training before completion.
  • Limited impact- It is due to medical issues, family obligations, social challenges, lengthy commutes, marital status changes, increased livelihood demands, limited job opportunities, and perceived skill stagnation.
  • Regional disparity- The placement rate varies across different states, with Telangana having the highest rate of 35.1% and Maharashtra having the lowest rate of 9.3%.
  • Low placement rate- Only a small fraction (18%) of trained candidates have been able to find a job after completing the training.

What lies ahead?

  • Quality improvisation- This can be done by ensuring adequate infrastructure, equipment and trainers at the training centres and by providing regular training.
  • Capacity building- The government must create a pool of National Assessors and Trainers under PMKVY 4.0 to reduce the dropout rates.
  • Better representation of industry- The standing committee has suggested conducting a survey of industry representatives to better understand their needs and expectations.
  • Foster participation- The government should increase the industry participation by involving them in the design, delivery, and assessment of the skill development programmes, and by providing incentives and recognition for their contribution.
  • Adopt localised approach- It is important to adopt localised, demand-driven approaches that cater to the specific regional challenges and opportunities.
  • Effective collaboration- The scheme needs to involve the State governments and the District Skill Committees more actively in the planning, implementation, and monitoring of the skill development programmes.
  • Accountability- The scheme should enhance the monitoring, mentorship, evaluation, and grievance redressal mechanisms, by using technology-driven platforms, innovative financing, and digitalisation, and by ensuring transparency and accountability at all levels.
  • Extensive support- Provide post training support and guidance, by facilitating placement opportunities, entrepreneurship development and career counselling and by offering additional support for vulnerable groups such as women, persons with disabilities and minorities.



  1. Business Line- Making skill effective
  2. MSDE- Guidelines for PMKVY 4.0
Tags : Schemes |
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