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December 11, 2023

Why in news?

Recently, India has launched the PM Janjati Adivasi Nyaya Maha Abhiyan a campaign for the tribals.

Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Groups (PVTGs)

  • There are 75 PVTGs out of 705 STs, spread over 18 states and 1 Union Territory (A&N Islands) with around 27.6 lakh as per 2011 Census.


  • Dhebar commission- In 1973, it created Primitive Tribal Groups (PTGs) as a separate category, who are less developed among the tribal groups.
  • PVTGs- In 2006, the Government of India renamed the PTGs as Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Groups (PVTGs).
  • Features-They are mostly homogenous, with a small population, relatively physically isolated, social institutes cast in a simple mould, absence of written language, relatively simple technology and a slower rate of change etc.,
  • Statistics- Highest PVTGs is present in Odisha (13) followed by Andhra Pradesh (12).
  • Chhattisgarh- It has 7 PVTGs namely Kamar, Baiga, Pahadi Korba, Abujhmadiya, Birhor, Pando and Bhujia.
  • Scheme for Development of PVTGs- It was established in 2008 to adopt a holistic approach to the socio-economic development of PVTGs.
  • Pradhan Mantri PVTGs Development Mission- It was introduced in the Union Budget 2023-24 to improve the socio-economic status of PVTGs and bridging gaps in health, education, livelihoods, and basic infrastructure.

What is PM-JANMAM scheme?

  • Launch- On Janjatiya Gaurav Diwas (Birth anniversary of Birsa Munda) in Jharkhand.
  • Objective- To provide essential amenities such as road and telecom connectivity, electricity, secure housing, clean drinking water, sanitation, and improved access to education, health, nutrition, and sustainable livelihood opportunities.
  • Awareness generation- The government will showcase and spread awareness of various government schemes made for the tribals.
  • Coordinating role- The scheme will be implemented by 9 ministries with Ministry of Tribal Affairs playing the key role.
  • Beneficiary- Government has identified 75 tribal communities and primitive tribes with a population of lakhs who reside in more than 22 thousand villages in the country.
  • Focus- 11 critical interventions for Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Groups (PVTG).




To provide 4.90 lakh pucca homes


  • Construct 8,000 kilometers of roads at a cost of Rs 1 crore per kilometre.
  • Installation of mobile towers.

Drinking water supply

Piped water supply for all Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Group (PVTG) habitations.

Community water supply

It will be provided in 2,500 villages/habitations with a population of less than 20 households.

Bandhan Vikas Kendra

  • It is a unit of 15 to 20 tribal self-help groups (SHGs) that collect and process minor forest produce (MFP) such as honey, tamarind, gum, etc.
  • The SHGs are trained and provided with equipment, working capital, and marketing support to add value to the products and sell them at higher prices.

Hostel facility

To provide 500 hostels

Health infrastructure

To provide 1000 mobile medical units for 10 districts.

Education and training

To provide vocational education and skilling centres in 60 Aspirational PVTG block.


  • Multipurpose centres.
  • Construction of Anganwadi centres.

Renewable energy

To provide solar off-grid system and solar lighting in streets.


Last mile electricity connection for 57,000 households.

  • Ayush Wellness Centres- It will be set up by the Ministry of AYUSH and AYUSH facilities will be extended to PVTG habitations through mobile medical units.
  • Skill enhancement- Ministry of Skill Development and Entrepreneurship will facilitate skill and vocational training in PVTG habitations, multipurpose centres and hostels according to suitable skills of these communities.

What are the challenges in implementation of the scheme?

  • Data inaccuracy-There is lack of current data on PVTGs, as no census since 1951 has accounted for them separately.
  • Lack of transparency- The current project is going ahead with the baseline surveys but the results are not made public.
  • Lack of accountability- The scheme involves multiple ministries, this may lead to issue of overlapping or conflicting mandate, gaps in service delivery etc.,
  • Loss of ecological diversity- Some of the interventions such as road construction may affect the availability and quality of natural resources.
  • Loss of cultural heritage- The scheme provides education, health, skill development etc., this may result in loss of their intellectual and cultural heritage, and reduce their resilience and adaptability.
  • Lack of autonomy- Mobile connectivity, Anganwadi centres and Bandhan Vikas Kendra may bring the PVTGs under the purview of state and market forces and compromise their sovereignty and rights.

What lies ahead?

  • National Advisory Council (NAC) 2013 report on the state of PVTGs had recommended that the Ministry of Tribal Affairs should design and conduct a Census specifically for the PVTG communities.
  • The Census should not just enumerate but also find out the status of education, health, and housing.



  1. The Hindu- Special package for PVTGs
  2. PIB- Pradhan Mantri Janjati Adivasi Nyaya Maha Abhiyan
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