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May 20, 2024

Why in news?

National Investigation Agency (NIA) has filed a chargesheet against 5 individuals linked to the National Socialist Council of Nagaland’s “China-Myanmar module”.


  • Ethnic composition- Manipur is home to three main ethnic groupings
    • Meitei-The largest community, constituting about 53% of the state’s total population.
    • Naga- They make up 17% of the population.
    • Kuki-Zo- This group also includes the Mizo and constitutes 26% of the population.
  • India-Myanmar border- The two countries share a 1,643 km border, with 398 km along Manipur.
  • Free Movement Regime- It was established in 1968 which allowed people to cross the border without documents or passports.
  • Border fencing- India decided to fence the entire border with Myanmar and end the FMR, it aims to curb illegal activities and infiltration, addressing security concerns exacerbated by the ongoing ethnic unrest in the region.
  • Insurgent groups-
    • Meitei insurgent groups- It include the People’s Liberation Army (PLA) and others, advocating for the secession of Manipur from India.
    • Naga Insurgent groups- It is primarily represented by the National Socialist Council of Nagaland (NSCN), which has factions like NSCN-IM.
    • Kuki-Zo insurgent groups- It includes groups under the United Peoples’ Front (UPF) and the Kuki National Organisation (KNO), which signed a suspension of operations pact with the government.


What is the issue?

  • The NIA's chargesheet is significant as it is the first official document linking the NSCN-IM with Meitei insurgent groups amid the current ethnic crisis.
  • The accused were identified as a trained cadre of People’s Liberation Army, one of the most violent Meitei insurgent groups.
  • After the NIA findings were reported, the NSCN-IM accused Indian security forces of aiding Kuki militant groups against Meitei groups in Myanmar.
  • The NSCN-IM, which has been in peace talks with the Indian government since 1997, distanced itself from the violence in Manipur, stating that no ethnic blood should flow in Naga areas due to the Meitei-Kuki-Zo conflicts.

Who are NSCN?

  • About- National Socialist Council of Nagaland is a Naga nationalist insurgent group operating primarily in the northeastern region of India.
  • Factions- NSCN-IM (Isak-Muivah faction) and NSCN-K (Khaplang faction).
  • NSCN-IM- It was formed in 1980 after splitting from the Naga National Council (NNC) following the Shillong Accord of 1975, which was seen as a betrayal by many Nagas.
  • Objective- The establishment of a sovereign Naga state called "Nagalim" or "Greater Nagaland," which would include all Naga-inhabited areas in Northeast India and parts of Myanmar.
  • Demand-They have been demanding a separate Naga flag and constitution as part of any final agreement with the Indian government.
  • Ceasefire agreement- NSCN-IM signed a ceasefire agreement with the Government of India in 1997 marking a significant development in the Naga peace process.
  • Framework agreement- It was signed in 2015 which aimed at finding a political solution to the Naga issue.

What lies ahead?

  • The ongoing unrest poses significant challenges to peace and stability in the region, exacerbated by historical grievances, demands for autonomy, and the strategic interests of neighbouring countries like Myanmar and China.
  • The Indian government's move to fence the border reflects an attempt to enhance security and manage the complex dynamics of cross-border ethnic ties.

Quick facts

National Investigation Agency

  • Established - It is a statutory body constituted in 2009 under NIA Act 2008.
  • Need- The agency is established on the wake of 26/11 Mumbai terror attack.
  • About- It is the Central counter terrorism law enforcement agency in India.
  • Administrative control- Ministry of Home Affairs
  • Headquarters- New Delhi
  • Branch offices- Hyderabad, Guwahati, Mumbai, Lucknow, Kochi, Kolkata, Jammu and Raipur.
  • TFFC Cell- Terror Funding and Fake Currency cell deals with the subject of fake currency notes and terror funding.
  • Scheduled offences- It includes the offences under laws that are mentioned such as Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances Act, UAPA Act, Explosives Act, Atomic Energy Act etc.,



  1. The Hindu- NIA’s allegation against NSCN-IM
  2. NIA- About us
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