Improving Livestock Breeding

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October 19, 2021

What is the issue?

The largely unorganised nature of livestock breeding in India had its impact on the quality of livestock and on the return on investment for farmers.

What is the status of livestock sector in India?

  • India is the world’s largest producer of milk and third largest producer of egg.
  • As per the Economic Survey-2021, the contribution of livestock in total agriculture and allied sector GVA (at Constant Prices) has increased to 28.63%  in 2018-19.
  • Approximately 200 million Indians are involved in livestock farming, including around 100 million dairy farmers.
  • Roughly 80% bovines in the country are low on productivity and are reared by small and marginal farmers.

To more about India’s livestock sector, click here

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What measures have been initiated to enhance the productivity of India’s livestock?

Operation Flood which was launched in 1970 by National Dairy Development Board (NDDB) transformed India from a milk-deficient into the world's largest milk producer. Dr Verghese Kurien was the architect of Operation Flood.

  • National Livestock Mission (NLM) - The mission commenced from 2014-15 with the objective of sustainable development of the livestock sector.
  • It focuses on entrepreneurship development and breed improvement by providing incentives to individual entrepreneurs, FPOs, farmer cooperatives, joint liability groups,SHGs, etc.
  • It is being implemented as a sub scheme of White Revolution - Rashtriya Pashudhan Vikas Yojana since April 2019.
  • The mission is organised into four sub – missions
    1. Sub -Mission on Livestock Development
    2. Sub - Mission on Pig Development in North-Eastern Region
    3. Sub - Mission on Feed and Fodder Development
    4. Sub -Mission on Skill Development, Technology Transfer and Extension
  • The poultry entrepreneurship programme will provide capital subsidy up to Rs. 25 lakh for setting up of a parent farm with a capacity to rear 1,000 chicks.
  • In sheep and goat entrepreneurship, there is a provision of capital subsidy of 50% up to 50 lakh.
  • For piggery, the NLM will provide 50% capital subsidy of up to Rs. 30 lakh.
  • These efforts are to promote entrepreneuship, increase the employment oppurtunities and to enhance the productivity.
  • Rashtriya Gokul Mission – It was initiated in 2014 with a focus on the conservation and development of indigenous breeds and improve their genetic makeup.
  • The scheme is implemented on 100% grant-in-aid basis.
  • The components include
    1. Establishment of integrated indigenous cattle centres - Gokul Gram
    2. Establishment of breeder’s societies - Gopalan Sangh
    3. Gopal Ratna award to Farmers  and Kamadhenu award to breeders’ societies
    4. National Kamdhenu Breeding Centres are being established as Centres of Excellence
    5. Provision for capital subsidy up to Rs. 200 lakh for setting up breeding farm with at least 200 milch cows/ buffalo using latest breeding technology.
    6. E-Pashu Haat- An e-market portal connecting breeders and farmers to provide  quality- disease free bovine germplasm
    7. Pashu Sanjivni: An Animal Wellness Programme with the provision of animal health cards along with UID identification

Indigenous cow breeds include Gir, Sahiwal, Rathi, Deoni, Kankrej, Tharparkar, Red Sindhi, Kangeyam, Ongole,etc.

Indigenous buffalo breeds include Murrah, Jaffrabadi, Pandharpuri, Mehsana,etc.

  • e-Gopala -  It is a web application that provides real-time information to livestock farmers on the availability of disease-free germplasm in relevant centres, veterinary care, etc.
  • National Animal Disease Control Programme – It was launched in 2019 to control and eradicate the Foot & Mouth Disease (FMD) and Brucellosis amongst the livestock
  • Animal Husbandry Infrastructure Development Fund (AHIDF) – The fund has been set up with an outlay of Rs. 15000 crore under AtmaNirbhar Bharat Abhiyan stimulus package.
  • It aims to incentivize the investments to establish dairy and meat processing and value addition infrastructure and animal feed plants.


Source: The Hindu


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