Green Energy in India

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June 04, 2024

Why in news? 

India’s energy landscape needs to address the challenges posed by China’s dominance in green energy materials is essential.

What is green energy?

  • About- It is the energy that can be produced using a method, and from a source, that causes no harm to the natural environment.
  • Solar energy- It is typically produced using photovoltaic cells, which capture sunlight and turn it into electricity.
  • Wind power- The air flow on the earth's surface can be used to push turbines, with stronger winds producing more energy.
  • Hydropower- It is generated by the Earth's water cycle, including evaporation, rainfall, tides and the force of water running through a dam.
  • Geothermal energy- It uses thermal energy that has been stored just under the earth’s crust.
  • Biofuel- They are liquid fuels produced from renewable biological sources, including plants and algae.
  • Bioenergy- It is produced from organic material, known as biomass, which contains carbon absorbed by plants through photosynthesis.

What are the steps taken by India to promote green energy?

  • National Green Hydrogen Mission- It focuses on direct and indirect employment, import substitution, and R&D for higher efficiency in renewable energy technologies.
  • PM KUSUM scheme-It is aimed at ensuring energy security for farmers in India, along with honouring India’s commitment to increase the share of installed capacity of electric power from non-fossil-fuel sources to 40% by 2030 as part of Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (INDCs).
  • Investment- India allows up to 100% Foreign Direct Investment under the automatic route for renewable energy generation and distribution project.
  • Production Linked Incentive (PLI) - Scheme for high efficiency solar aims to enhance India’s manufacturing capabilities and exports in the solar sector.
  • Green Energy Corridors- It is established to create intra-state transmission system for renewable energy projects.
  • International Solar Alliance- It is a joint effort by India and France to mobilize efforts against climate change through deployment of solar energy solutions with an aim of One Sun, One World, One Grid.
  • Green carbon credits-It is proposed by India to create carbon sinks through people’s participation.
  • Pradhan Mantri Suryodaya Yojana- It was launched in 2024 to equip 1 crore poor to middle-class households with rooftop solar panels in a bit to provide electricity from solar energy.

How can India ensure energy security?

  • Integrate hydrocarbon PSEs- Hydrocarbon Public Sector Enterprises like ONGC and Indian Oil are venturing into renewable energy sectors, this would prevent redundancy, optimize resource utilization and streamline efforts
  • Secure critical minerals- Heavy reliance on China for critical technologies poses threat to national security hence India should ensure a stable and secure supply of essential minerals.
  • Balance clean energy competitiveness- While prioritizing national security is essential, India must also consider the competitiveness of clean energy vis-a-vis fossil fuels.
  • Competitiveness of clean energy- India should enhance domestic manufacturing capabilities and reduce dependency on imports.
  • Extend PLI scheme- The Production Linked Incentive scheme needs to be extended to cover more segments of the renewable energy sector.
  • Protect domestic industries- Implement tariffs and anti-dumping duties to protect domestic industries from unfair competition.
  • Promote local manufacturers- Encourage public-private partnerships to build a robust local manufacturing ecosystem.
  • Foster private investment- Mobilize private capital for sustainable energy projects and increase government funding for flagship renewable energy projects demonstrate feasibility and profitability.
  • Balance green transition- Green transition needs to be balanced with economic growth and stability to ensure a smooth and balanced transition without adversely impacting the economy.
  • Form Inter-Ministerial Task Force- This should be formed to oversee the implementation of the energy strategy, ensuring coordinated efforts across various government departments and agencies.
  • Periodic review- Establish periodic review processes involving stakeholders from industry, academia, and civil society to assess progress and make necessary adjustments.
  • Holisitic approach- Engage the public and private sectors through awareness programs highlighting the benefits and opportunities of the green transition.



  1. Indian Express- India's green transition
  1. PIB- PM Suryodaya Yojana
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