900 319 0030

Downstream Aluminium for building Smart Cities

iasparliament Logo
April 23, 2022

Why in news?

Aluminium can play a significant role in creating sustainable products in the construction sector because of its environment friendly nature.

What is the need for smart cities?

  • India is urbanizing exponentially with the expected influx of over 400 million people over next 35 years.
  • As cities develop into smart clusters, they are set to act as the primary growth drivers for the country’s economy.
  • The government of India is taking up an initiative to promote 100 sustainable and inclusive cities in a time-bound manner under Smart Cities Mission.
  • The creation of smart cities involves revamping the current urban infrastructure to match the requirements of its population.
  • Urban renewal and retrofitting project enable citizens to lead a decent quality of life in a clean and sustainable environment with energy-efficient buildings, innovative connectivity, and technology driving its efficiency.

What is the status of aluminium industry in India?

  • Aluminum is the third most abundant element in the world behind only oxygen and silicon.
  • Since Aluminium is so chemically reactive, it is not found as a pure element in nature, but instead found in combined state.
  • The top source of aluminum is an ore called bauxite.
  • The aluminum industry can be separated into three main segments
    • Upstream- It refers to the production of aluminum from bauxite mining to alumina refining to aluminum smelting.
    • Midstream- It refers to converting aluminum into manufacturing feedstock.
    • Downstream- It refers to engineered products and solutions.
  • India lies at the second position in the list of leading primary aluminium producers in the world.
  • In India, the power sector is the biggest consumer of aluminium at followed by transport and automobiles at, building and construction, and consumer durables.
  • The per capita aluminium consumption in India is 2.5 kg whereas the global average level is 11 kg.
  • The downstream aluminium segment also generates employment opportunities and supports the country’s GDP as smart cities become hubs of excellence.


How is Aluminium significant in building eco-friendly cities?

  • Environment friendly- Aluminium offers half the carbon footprint of competing metals and thus more significant environmental sustainability benefits.
  • Cost factor- Aluminium poles turn cities smarter with their longevity, reduced installation, and maintenance costs.
  • Recyclable- Aluminium is a 100% recyclable metal, and it’s recycling only requires 5% of energy, making it highly efficient.
  • Sustainable mobility solutions- The malleability, ductility, conductivity, and light-weighting properties make aluminium an up-to-date material in transport.



  1. https://www.thehindubusinessline.com/opinion/how-downstream-aluminium-can-help-build-smart-cities/article65345552.ece
  2. https://business.mapsofindia.com/aluminium/
  3. https://www.fool.com/investing/general/2014/08/07/aluminum-investing-essentials.aspx#:~:text=Midstream%20refers%20to%20converting%20aluminum,to%20engineered%20products%20and%20solutions.


Login or Register to Post Comments
There are no reviews yet. Be the first one to review.



Free UPSC Interview Guidance Programme