Digitisation of Land Records

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July 25, 2023

Why in news?

Recently, while presenting Bhoomi Samman Award 2023, President Draupadi Murmu said that land digitisation will curb land-linked illegal activities.

What is land record digitisation?

The subject of Land and its management falls under the State List provided under Entry 18 and Entry 45 of List II of Seventh Schedule of Indian Constitution.

  • Land digitisation refers to the process of converting analogue or physical information about land into digital data.
  • It involves capturing, storing, and managing land-related information in a digital format.
  • Goal- To create a comprehensive and accurate digital representation of land parcels, boundaries, ownership records, and other relevant data.
  • Features – It involves the use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS), satellite imagery, aerial photography, and other technologies to capture spatial data and attribute information about the land.

Status of Land Digitisation in India

  • The Government has achieved 94% digitization targets pan-India, as per the Digital Indi Land Records Modernization Programme- MIS 2.0.
  • As per NCAER’s N-LRSI report, the top 5 performing states in land digitisation in 2021 are Madhya Pradesh, West Bengal, Odisha, Maharashtra, and Tamil Nadu.

Why is land digitisation so significant?

  • Secure land rights and ownership- It provides individuals and communities with secure land rights.
  • Transparency - It promotes transparency and reduces corruption in the land administration system.
  • Prevention of land disputes - It reduces the chances of disputes arising from conflicting land claims or unauthorised encroachments and will reduce the pendency of cases in judiciary.

A NITI Aayog report showed that land disputes take an average of 20 years to resolve.

  • Ease of access and service delivery-It facilitates easy access to land records for citizens, reducing bureaucratic hurdles and time-consuming procedures.
  • Integration with other e-governance initiatives- Integration with Aadhaar will streamlines the process, eliminates duplication of data and enhances the efficiency of government services.
  • Provision of institutional loans- Digitisation of land records will provide legal land titles to farmers and it will be easier for them to access collateral loan in bank.
  • Economic growth- Reduction in land disputes will improve faster infrastructure development.
  • Curb illegal activities- Digitisation of land records will keep a check on benami transactions and the black money associated with it.
  • Monitor real estate sector- Real estate sector which contributes 5-6% to the country’s GDP, needs electronic public register of land record for proper management
  • Calamities- It would also be of great help in case of loss of documents due to calamities like flood and fire.

The Standing Committee of Finance’s 28th report on the Benami Transactions Prohibition (Amendment) Bill, 2015 highlights the impact of digital land records on the poor and vulnerable and the difficulty of genuine landowners in establishing their titles.

What efforts were taken to promote land digitisation?


  • Digital India Land Record Modernisation Programme (DILRMP) - It is a Central sector scheme with 100 % funding by centre that was launched in 2016.
  • It aims to develop Integrated Land Information Management System (ILIMS) across the country.
  • Implemented by Ministry of Rural Development.
  • Its sub-components include ULPIN, NGDRS,etc.
  • ULPIN- Unique Land Parcel Identification Number is a unique 14-digit authentication number that will be assigned for every plot or parcel of land in the whole country.
  • It is classified as Aadhar for Land, which contains ownership information, area and size of the plot.
  • National Generic Document Registration System - It is a “One-Nation One-Registration Software”.
  • It is a common, generic and configurable application developed for registration departments across the country.
  • Bhoomi Samman Award- It aims to acknowledge and encourage outstanding performance in the implementation of the DILRMP.
  • It aims to achieve 100% saturation of the core components of digitization of land records in all districts of the country by March 31, 2024.
  • Platinum Grading Excellence is given to districts that successfully achieve 100% target in the core components of the DILRMP.
  • SVAMITVA - Survey of Villages and Mapping with Improvised Technology in Village Areas was launched in 2020.
  • It aims to provide the ‘Record of Rights’ to village household owners possessing houses in inhabited areas in villages.

What are the issues with land digitisation?

  • Data quality- Poor data quality and errors in legacy records can hamper the accuracy and reliability of digital land records.
  • Fragmented land -India has a complex land ownership structure with multiple stakeholders, including individuals, families, communities, and government entities
  • Lack of standardised formats -It hinders the seamless exchange and integration of land-related data, leading to difficulties in data sharing and analysis.
  • Limited technical infrastructure -In remote rural areas, insufficient access to computers, internet connectivity, and power supply poses challenges in implementing digitalisation of land records effectively.
  • Capacity building - The lack of trained personnel can hinder the successful implementation of digitised land records.
  • Legal and policy frameworks- There is a need to develop appropriate frameworks that support land digitisation.
  • Cultural factors- Digitisation initiatives often face resistance from stakeholders accustomed to traditional land record systems.
  • Financial constraints- Lack of finance will slow down the pace of digitisation efforts, particularly in resource-constrained regions.



  1. Indian Express| Digitisation of land records
  2. Financial Express| Need to digitise land records
  3. PIB| Bhoomi Samman Award
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