Challenges for Global Goal on Adaptation

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December 27, 2023

Why in news?

COP28 at Dubai culminated in the adoption of Global Goal on Adaptation (GGA) framework.

What is Global Goal on Adaptation?

  • It sets the vision for global wellbeing and resilience to protect people and ecosystems.
  • EstablishmentIn 2015, a collective commitment under Article 7.1 of the Paris Agreement at COP 15, proposed by the African Group of Negotiators (AGN) in 2013.

At Paris agreement, the global mitigation goal was aimed at limiting global temperature rise to 1.5°C.

  • Aims – To enhance adaptive capacity, strengthen resilience and reduce vulnerability to climate change and thereby contributing to sustainable development.
  • Role – It is to serve as a unifying framework that can drive political action and finance for adaptation on the same scale as mitigation.
  • It will help in setting specific, measurable targets and guidelines for global adaptation action as well as enhancing adaptation finance and support for developing countries.
  • Glasgow-Sharm el-Sheikh work programme (GlaSS) – It was created by the signatories to the Paris Agreement at COP 26 in Glasgow in 2021 to better understand, conceptualize and achieve this goal.
  • It is a 2 year programme (2022-2023) carried out by
    • The Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice (SBSTA), the Subsidiary Body for Implementation (SBI), the 2 technical bodies that support the CMA (Meeting of Parties to the Paris agreement)
    • With the support of the UNFCCC secretariat





To reduce vulnerability and to enhance resilience.

To reduce the greenhouse gas emissions to slow the climate change.


Local or regional



It addresses specific climate impacts like flooding or heatwaves

It addresses the overall emissions through strategies like renewable energy or reforestation.


It is complex with no universal metric, focusing on varied local outcomes.

It is measured in CO2 equivalents, offering a standardized metric for comparing efforts globally.

What are the challenges for Global Goal on Adaptation?

  • Determining national action – It is complex due to differences in national conditions, administrative capacities, and economic development levels.
  • This will affect how global goals are adopted locally.
  • Measuring progress – There is no universal metric for adaptation which makes it difficult to aggregate and compare progress across countries.
  • While the GGA is working on developing indicators, it currently lacks specifics on development and implementation.
  • Lack of climate financing– There is also a strong bias in climate financing in favour of mitigation as compared to adaptation.
  • The adaptation finance gap is widening, with a need for $ 71 billion per year until 2030.
  • Current finance is insufficient, with adaptation finance significantly trailing behind mitigation.

What is the way forward?

  • Collective action – All regions need to acknowledge global cooperation to achieve the Paris Agreement's objectives.
  • Integrate adaptation and mitigation – Climate action requires a balanced approach.
  • Ensure equity, rights, and justice – Prioritize marginalized communities and future generations to benefit equitably from adaptation strategies.
  • Transformational Adaptation – To embracing innovation and empowering local communities.
  • Capacity Building – To build institutional, technical, and financial capabilities.
  • Engaging young people.


  1. The Hindu| Challenges for GGA
  2. UNEP| Global Goal on Adaptation
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