Prelim Bits 25-08-2023 | UPSC Daily Current Affairs

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August 25, 2023

Kaliveli Bird Sanctuary

The Southern Bench of National Green Tribunal (NGT) withholds green nod granted for fishing harbours near Kaliveli bird sanctuary.

Kaliveli Bird Sanctuary

  • The Villupuram District administration in Tamil Nadu issued the declaration for setting up of the sanctuary under the Wildlife Protection Act, 1972.
  • The declaration was issued in a bid to declare the Kaliveli wetlands as a bird sanctuary.
  • This wetland is the second largest brackish water lake in South India.

Chilka is the largest brackish water lake in South India.

  • The Kaliveli Lake is connected to the Bay of Bengal through the Uppukalli Creek and the Edayanthittu sanctuary.
  • The Southern part of this wetland was declared a reserved land in the year 2001.
  • Species – Home to migratory birds such as black-tailed godwits, Eurasian curlew, white stork, ruff and dunlin.

Kaliveli Sanctuary 2023

National Green Tribunal (NGT)

  • The National Green Tribunal (NGT) is a statutory body that was established in 2010 by the National Green Tribunal Act.
  • It was set up to handle cases and speed up the cases related to environmental issues.
  • The Tribunal shall not be bound by the procedure laid down under the Code of Civil Procedure, 1908, but shall be guided by principles of natural justice.
  • New Delhi is the Principal Place of Sitting of the Tribunal and Bhopal, Pune, Kolkata, and Chennai shall be the other four places of sitting of the Tribunal.


  1. The Hindu – NGT withholds plan for fishing harbour in bird sanctuary
  2. The New Indian Express – TN declares Kaliveli bird sanctuary


New study raises concerns on use of common herbicide Clethodim, which is posing a silent threat to male reproductive health.

  • Clethodim is an oxime O-ether resulting from the formal conversion of the acyclic keto group of oxime with chloroallyl group.

An oxime is a functional group consisting of a hydroxyl group bonded to the nitrogen atom of an imine.

  • It is used as a selective post emergence herbicide for the control of annual and perennial grasses in numerous crops.
  • The crops includes alfalfa, celery, clover, conifers, cotton, cranberries, garlic, onions, ornamentals, peanuts, soybeans, strawberries, sugar beet, sunflowers, and vegetables.
  • It has a role as an herbicide and is regarded as an organic sulfide.
  • Effects – Exposure to the widely used herbicide Clethodim can significantly impact male reproductive function and early embryonic development.
  • It causes a reduction in testicular weight, a decrease in germ cell population, lower levels of serum testosterone, abnormalities in sperm, and compromised pre-implantation embryo development


  1. The Hindu – A silent threat to male reproductive health
  2. Deccan Herald – Exposure to Clethodim can reduce male fertility

Tropical Glaciers

El Nino could doom Indonesia's rare tropical glaciers by 2026.

  • Like polar ice caps, tropical glaciers are those that are located high in the equatorial mountain ranges of the tropical countries.

Tropical countries are nations that are located in the tropics, the belt-shaped region of the Earth closest to the Equator, horizontally bordered by the Tropic of Cancer to the north and the Tropic of Capricorn to the south.

  • It is estimated that the tropical glaciers across the globe may melt way in the next 30 years.
  • The Andes mountain range contains the largest glaciated area in the tropics, the Qualccaya Ice Cap in Peru.
  • In addition to Papua, tropical glaciers may be found in the Andes of South America and the mountains of Kilimanjaro, Mount Kenya, and Rwenzory in Africa.
  • Indonesia, home to a third of the world’s rainforest after Brazil and Congo.
  • The glaciers are among the few left in the tropics, are the Carstensz Pyramid and the East Northwall Firn in the Jayawijaya mountains in the easternmost region of Papua.

Tropical Glaciers across the globe


  1. The Hindu – Indonesia to lose its tropical glaciers by 2026
  2. The Guardian – Tropical glaciers across the globe are threatened

Gun Jumping

The Competition Commission of India (CCI) has imposed a penalty on Platinum Trust for Gun Jumping.

  • Gun Jumping is all about competition and merger control.
  • M & A – Gun Jumping in competition jurisprudence occurs when parties to an M&A deal go ahead and consummate a transaction without keeping the competition authorities, the CCI in the loop.

Mergers and acquisitions (M&A) is a generally used term to describe the process of combining companies through various types of transactions.

  • Most competition regimes, including India, requires pre-merger notification (in India it is the CCI),
  • In the process of investigation, CCI expects parties not to proceed with merger till the standstill period is over.
  • The term ‘Gun Jumping’ has not been defined anywhere in the Competition Act.
  • The law requires parties to a deal satisfying certain monetary thresholds, to first notify the CCI about the impending transaction.
  • Standstill point – Parties are then obligated to conform to the standstill provisions, wait for 210 days from the date of notifying or till CCI approval happens, whichever is earlier.
  • During the standstill period, the parties are required to continue to operate their businesses as independent entities.
  • If the parties fail to notify CCI before the consummation of the deal or violate standstill obligations, this is typically referred to as gun jumping.
  • Punishment – The Competition Commission of India (CCI) has the power to penalize parties for Gun Jumping under Section 43A of the Competition Act 2002.
  • Penalty – The penalty can be as high as 1 per cent of the total turnover or 1 per cent of the assets, whichever is higher, of the combination.
  • Two forms – Gun jumping may occur in two forms, Procedural Gun Jumping (failure to notify) and Substantive Gun Jumping.


  1. The Hindu Business Line – India emerging as a hub for Gun Jumping
  2. The Hindu Business Line – CCI slaps ₹40 lakhs penalty on Axis Bank

BRICS Expansion

BRICS invited six more countries to join the alliance in the ongoing BRICS-Africa Outreach and BRICS Plus Dialogue, in Johannesburg, South Africa.

  • Originally conceived as BRIC by Jim O'Neill, the grouping consisted of Brazil, Russia, India, and China.
  • Launch- It was launched by a meeting of the Foreign Ministers of Brazil, Russia, India and China in 2006.
  • BRIC turned into BRICS in 2010, with the entry of South Africa.
  • Current Members – Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa.
  • Chair – Chaired by member countries in rotational basis.
  • South Africa is the chair for 2023.
  • First summit – It was held in Yekaterinburg in 2009.
  • BRICS decisions are unanimous, that is, all members have to agree for any move to go ahead.

BRICS old members 2023

BRICS Summit 2023

  • New Members – In the ongoing summit at Johannesburg, South Africa, BRICS has invited Iran, the United Arab Emirates, Saudi Arabia, Argentina, Egypt, and Ethiopia to be its new members.
  • Their membership will begin in January, 2024.
  • BRICS currently represents around 40% of the world’s population and more than a quarter of the world’s GDP.
  • With the additions, it will represent almost half the world’s population, and will include three of the world’s biggest oil producers, Saudi Arabia, the UAE and Iran.

BRICS new members 2023


  1. Reuters – BRICS welcomes new members
  2. Al Jazeera – Saudi Arabia, Iran among nations invited to join BRICS
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