Prelim Bits 09-08-2023 | UPSC Daily Current Affairs

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August 09, 2023

Interpol Global Academy Network (IGAN)

CBI Academy joins Interpol Global Academy Network.

  • CBI Academy joins Interpol Global Academy Network through virtual signing ceremony organized between CBI and Interpol Global Complex for Innovation at Singapore.


  • It was launched in 2019 with the aim of supporting Interpol in leading a global approach to Law Enforcement Training.
  • It is a network of trusted law enforcement education institutions, both regional and national in scope.
  • The Network has members in all regions and supports academic collaboration amongst Law Enforcement Training Institutions across the globe.
  • Members of the Global Academy support the creation and delivery of select digital and face-to-face training courses, covering INTERPOL’s tools and services, crime areas, and other law enforcement topics.

CBI Academy

  • The Academy is situated in district Ghaziabad, Uttar Pradesh.
  • The Academy is the focal point of training activities within the organization.
  • It is responsible for identification and conducting suitable training programmes, regulation of nominations of trainees and preparation of the Annual Training Calendar.
  • It conducts On-line training programmes for personnel from CBI and other central and local law enforcement agencies.
  • It has become the 10th Member of the Interpol Global Academy Network.


  1. The Hindu – CBI Academy joins Interpol Global Academy Network
  2. CBI – Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI)
  3. Interpol – INTERPOL’s Global Academy Network

Judges' post-retirement assignments

Parliamentary panel recommends increasing retirement age of judges in High Courts, Supreme Court.

  • In its report tabled in Parliament, the committee underscored the need for reassessing post-retirement assignments of judges.
  • The committee tabled a report, titled Judicial Processes and Their Reform, in the Parliament.

The committee recommendations

  • There is an increase in the practice of post-retirement assignments to judges of the SC and high courts (HCs) in bodies financed from the public exchequer should be reassessed to ensure their impartiality.
  • Age increase – While increasing the age of retirement for judges, the performance of judges should be reassessed based on their health conditions, quality of judgments, and number of judgments delivered.
  • A proper system – For this, a system of appraisal may be devised and put in place by the SC collegium before any judge is recommended for enhancement in tenure.

The representation of the Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes, women, and minorities in the higher judiciary is far below the desired levels and does not reflect the social diversity of the country.

  • Court leaves – It bemoaned the colonial legacy of judges going on leave en masse.
  • Regional benches – The panel felt that the demand for having regional Benches of the SC is about access to justice.
  • The Delhi-centric SC causes a big hurdle for litigants coming from far-flung areas of the country.
  • Article 130 – The committee recommended the SC invoke Article 130 of the Constitution to establish its regional Benches at four or five locations in the country.

Judges retirement age 2023


  1. Business Standard – Parliament panel seeks review of judges' post-retirement assignments
  2. Ani News – Parliamentary panel recommends to increase retirement age of judges in High Courts, Supreme Court

Manipur Committee

An all-women committee of three former High Court judges to oversee relief in Manipur was constituted by the Supreme Court.

  • The committee will be constituted to supervise, intervene and monitor relief and rehabilitation, restoration of homesteads, religious places of worships, better relief work, etc.
  • The committee will be led by ormer Jammu & Kashmir High Court Chief Justice Gita Mittal, the committee includes Justices (retd) Shalini P Joshi and Asha Menon.
  • This move aims to oversee various aspects beyond the investigation, such as relief, rehabilitation, and compensation for those affected by the violence.
  • The committee's role extends beyond investigation, encompassing vital aspects of recovery and rebuilding.
  • The primary goal behind the committee is to restore public confidence, reinforce faith in the rule of law, and rebuild trust within the affected community.


  1. The Hindu – All-women committee of three former High Court judges to oversee relief in Manipur
  2. Business Standard – SC forms all-women judicial panel for humanitarian aspects in Manipur

Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS)

ECOWAS the West African bloc could intervene in Niger’s coup.

  • The Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) is a regional group of 15 founded in 1975.
  • Lagos Treaty – It is also known as CEDEAO in French and was established through the Lagos Treaty.
  • Mission – Its mission is to promote economic integration in all fields of economic activity, social and cultural matters.
  • The Institutions of the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) are as follows:
    1. The Commission
    2. The Community Parliament
    3. The Community Court OF Justice
    4. ECOWAS Bank for Investment and Development (EBID)
  • The ECOWAS Commission and the ECOWAS Bank for Investment and Development, more often called The Fund are its two main institutions.
  • They are designed to implement policies, pursue a number of programmes and carry out development projects in Member States.
  • Single currency – Its larger aims are to have a single common currency and create a single, large trading bloc in western Africa.
  • The grouping has also intervened militarily in the region in the past.
  • It works with the mandate of promoting economic integration among its members.
  • Members – Benin, Burkina Faso, Cape Verde, Cote d’ Ivoire, The Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea Bissau, Liberia, Mali, Niger, Nigeria, Sierra Leone, Senegal and Togo.

Around 400 million people live in the countries that are part of the ECOWAS.



  1. The Indian Express – ECOWAS, the West African bloc that could intervene in Niger’s coup
  2. African Union – ECOWAS

Maya OS

Defence Ministry to switch to locally built OS Maya amid threats.

The initiative

  • The Defence Cyber Agency conducted cybersecurity drills, which included the participation of various branches of national security.
  • Its focus was to evaluate the effectiveness of the firewalls in service to safeguard the country’s vital infrastructure.
  • In the face of increasing cyber and malware attacks on defence as well as critical infrastructure across the country, the Defence Ministry has decided to replace the Microsoft Operating System (OS).

Maya OS

  • The Microsoft Operating System (OS) in all computers connected to the Internet will be replaced with a new OS, Maya.
  • Indian Navy has decided to install Maya OS in their systems while the Army and the Air Force are evaluating it.
  • Maya is based on open-source Ubuntu that is developed locally.
  • Maya has the interface and all functionality like Windows and users will not feel much difference as they transition to it.
  • Maya was developed by government development agencies and it would prevent malware attacks and other cyberattacks.


  1. The Hindu – Defence Ministry to switch to locally built OS Maya amid threats
  2. The New Indian Express – India Defence Ministry to install 'Maya OS' for cybersecurity
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