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India’s Updated NDC

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September 10, 2022

Why in news?

Union Cabinet has recently approved the India’s Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC) to UNFCCC, which is an update to its first NDC that was submitted on October 2, 2015.

What is a NDC?

  • It is a plan submitted by a country to work towards their climate goals.
  • It is outlined in the Paris Agreement adopted in 2015.

Article 4, paragraph 2 of Paris Agreement says “Each Party shall prepare, communicate and maintain successive nationally determined contributions that it intends to achieve. Parties shall pursue domestic mitigation measures, with the aim of achieving the objectives of such contributions”

  • NDCs are submitted every five years to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) secretariat.
  • In August 2022, India formally updated its NDC to the UNFCCC, which was approved by the Union Cabinet.
  • The updated NDC is a step towards India’s goal to reach net-zero emissions by 2070.

What is the document all about?

  • It is a three-page document that outlines India’s updated contribution towards its climate action plans and goals.
  • This update to India’s existing NDC translates the ‘Panchamrit’ announced at COP 26 into enhanced climate targets.
  • Emissions intensity – It is the total amount of emissions emitted for every unit of GDP.
    • Target -

2015 Agreement

Updated NDC

Improving the emission intensity of its GDP by 33-35% below the 2005 level, by 2030.

Reducing the emission intensity of its GDP by 45% by 2030, compared to the 2005 level.

  • The goal to reduce emissions intensity and improve energy efficiency was not sector specific.
  • Status -India had already achieved 21% of its emissions intensity as a proportion of its GDP in line with its commitment.
  • Non fossil fuel-based energy – To meet 50% of cumulative electric power installed capacity from non-fossil fuel-based energy resources by 2030.
  • Power - 500 GW of non-fossil fuel installed power generation capacity by 2030.
  • Absolute Emission - Cutting absolute emissions by one billion tonnes, presumably from projected business-as-usual (BAU) 2030 levels.
  • Net-zero emissions – To be achieved by 2070.
  • Other Highlights
    • Adopting a climate-friendly and cleaner path for economic development,
    • Creating an additional carbon sink - 2.5 to 3 billion tonnes of CO2 equivalent through additional forest and tree cover by 2030.
    • Adapting to climate change by enhancing investments in development programmes in vulnerable sectors,
    • Mobilising funds from developed countries to implement better mitigation and adaptation actions, and
    • Building an architectural framework and other capacities for quick diffusion and better research and development for climate technologies.
    • LIFE – lifestyle for environment – It is a public movement to encourage people to become pro-planet.

India’s INDC Targets under Paris Agreement 2015

  • To reduce the emissions intensity of its GDP by 33 to 35 % by 2030 from 2005 level.
  • To achieve about 40 % cumulative electric power installed capacity from non-fossil fuel based energy resources by 2030.
  • To create an additional carbon sink of 2.5 to 3 billion tonnes of CO2 equivalent through additional forest and tree cover by 2030.

How well India is performing?

  • India is the only G20 country that is on track to achieve its climate goals under the Paris Agreement.
  • Climate Change Performance Index – India ranked among the top 10 countries in 2019 and 2022.
  • Its performance was rated high in the greenhouse gas emissions, energy use, and climate policy categories, and medium in the renewable energy category.



1. https://www.thehindu.com/sci-tech/energy-and-environment/explained-indias-updated-nationally-determined-contribution-to-combat-climate-change/article65861496.ece

2. https://vikaspedia.in/energy/environment/climate-change/indias-intended-nationally-determined-contribution


Quick Facts

Paris Agreement

  • It is a legally binding international climate treaty, approved by world leaders attending the Climate Conference, COP21 in 2015.
  • Adopted - December 12, 2015 by 196 countries
  • Entered into force - November 4, 2016.
  • Main Goal -  To limit global warming by keeping average global temperatures “well below two, preferably to 1.5 degrees Celsius”, in comparison with pre-industrial levels.
  • Green Climate Fund was set up as part of the Paris Agreement.
  • It is the world’s largest climate fund.
  • It helps developing countries achieve their NDCs and work towards lowering emissions, with the hope of eventually averting the climate emergency.
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